Important Amendment

Tenth Amendment, 1961

 

  • Added two new territories of Dadra and Nagar Haveli to the List of Union territories in the First Schedule.
  • Added a new Article 239-A to provide for the creation of the Legislatures and Council of Ministers in certain Union territories.

 

Twelfth Amendment 1962

 

 By this Amendment the territories of Goa. Daman and Diu were included as a Union in the First Schedule.

 

Fourteenth Amendment, 1962

 

 This amendment added the territory of Pondicherry, a French establishment, as a Union territory in the First Schedule.

 

 

Fifteenth Amendment, 1962

 

 Raised the retirement age of High Court judges from 60 years to 62 years by amending Art, 217.

 

Twenty-First Amendment, 1966

 

 Amended Schedule VIII to the Constitution, added “Sindhi” as constitutionally recognized language in India.

 

Twenty-Fourth Amendment, 1971

 

  • Passed to remove difficulties created by the decision of Supreme Court in Golaknath v. State of Punjab.

 

  • It not only removed the restrictions placed by the Goalk Nath’s case but has extended the power of amendment by adding the words, “Parliament may amend by way of addition, variation or repeal any provision of the Constitution.”

 

Twenty-Sixth Amendment, 1971

 

  • This amendment was necessitated by the decision of the Supreme Court in Privy Purse case (Madhav Rao Sindia v. Union of India), in which the Presidential Order derecognizing the privileges of the Ex-Rulers of Indian States was declared unconstitutional.

 

  • The Amendment omitted Arts, 291 and 362 and inserted a new Article, Art 363-A, which abolished the right of privy purse and all rights, liabilities and obligation in respect of privy purses.

 

Twenty-Eight Amendment, 1972

 

  • Abolished the special privileges enjoyed by the Members of the Indian Civil Services.

 

Thirty-First Amendment, 1974

 

  • Amended Art. 81(1) and raised the strength of the Lok Sabha from 525 to 545.

 

Thirty-Sixth Amendment, 1975

 

 It amended the first Schedule to the Constitution and included Sikkim as the 22nd State of the Indian Union.

 

Fortieth Amendment, 1976

 

 Substituted a new Article for the existing Art. 297 empowers Parliament to specify by law the limits of the country’s territorial waters, the continental shelf, the exclusive economic zone and other martime zones.

 

Forty-First Amendment, 1976

 

 It raised the age of retirement of the Chairman and Members of the State Public Service Commission from 60 to 62 years, with a view of bring it in line with the retirement age of the High Court Judges.

 

Forty-Second Amendment, 1976

 

  • Inserted three new words ‘Socialist’ ‘Secular’ and ‘integrity’ in the Premable.

 

  • Gave supremacy to the directive principles over the fundamental rights

 

  • The Act added three new directives to the Constitution : (1)Equal justice and free legal aid, Art,39(A); (2)Participation of workers in the management of industries, Art 43-A; (3) Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life, Art 48-A.

 

  • Added a new Part IV A to the Constitution which lays down ten fundamental duties for the citizens of India. 
  • Article 55 was amended to make it clear that the ‘population’ of the country for the purposes of allocation of seats in Parliament and the State Assemblies will be determined on the basis of the 1971 census and will remain the same till the year 2000.

 

  • Amended Art. 74 which now make it clear that the President shall be bound by the advice of the Council of Ministers.

 

  • Empowers the Supreme Court to transfer cases from the one High Court to another High Court if it expedient to do so for the ends of justice.

 

  • The Law providing for a creation of the all India Judicial service shall not be deemed to be an amendment of the Constitution for the purposes of Article 368.

 

  • The amendment added a new chapter to the Constitution, entitled ad “Tribunals”. Consists of it

Article – Art.323-A provides for the establishment of Administrative Tribunals for determining disputes relating two the recruitment and conditions of service of Central Government servants and servants of the States. Article 323-B provides for the creation of various other tribunals.

 

  • In Article 352 it has inserted the following words : “ in respect of the whole of India or of enable the President to make a Proclamation of emergency either in respect of any part of the country or the whole of India.

 

Forty-Fourth Amendment, 1978

 

  • Article 71 “as originally enacted” gave jurisdiction to the Supreme Court  to decide election disputes of the President and the Vice President.

 

  • Article  74 as amended by the 42nd Amendment made the advice of the Cabinet binding on the President. The 44th Amendment retains the amendment but adds a new provision which provides that “the President may require the Council of Minister to reconsider its advice tendered by them and that the President shall act in accordance with the advice tendered after such reconsideration”.

 

  • Took away the right to property from the category of fundamental rights and makes it a right which can be regulated by ordinary law. Consequently, it has replaced Art, 19(1)(f) and Art 31.

 

  • It has inserted a new Article 300A under the Heading “Right to Property” in Part XII of the Constitution which provides that-“no person shall be deprived of his property save by authority of law”.

 

  • Omitted Art. 329 – A which was inserted by the 42nd Amendment Act and which took away the power of the court to decide the election disputes of the Prime Minister and the Speaker of the Lok Sabha.

 

  • Amended article 352, by inserting- “The President shall impose national emergency on the written advise of the/union Cabinet(the word finds mention in the Constitution for the first time)

 

Fifty-Second Amendment Act, 1985

 

    Amended Articles 101 102 190 and 191 and added Tenth Schedule to the constitution which is related to anti-defection law.

 

Fifty-Fourth Amendment Act, 1986

 

 Amended Parts D of the second Schedule of the Constitution and raises the salary of the Chief Justice of India from Rs. 5000 to Rs. 10,000, those of Supreme Court Judges and Chief Justices of High Courts from Rs. 4000 to Rs. 9000 and High Court Judges from Rs. 35000 to Rs. 8000.

 

Fifty-Eight Amendment, 1987

 

  • Provided for an authoritative text of the Constitution in Hindi and says that the translation of this Constitution shall have the same meaning as the original thereof.

 

Sixty-First Amendment Act, 1989

 

  • Amendment Art, 326 of the Constitution and reduced the voting age from 21 to 18 years.

 

Sixty-Second Amendment Act, 1989

 

 Extended the reservation of seats for SC’s and ST’s in the Central and State Legislative Assemblies from 40 years to 50 years.

 

Sixty-Fifth Amendment Act, 1990

 

 Amended Article 338 of the Constitution and provided for the establishment of a “National Commission for Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes” in place of a special officer for the SC’s and ST’s (b) It shall consist of a Chairman, Vice-Chairman and five other members.

 

Sixty Ninth Amendment Act, 1991

 

  • Added two new Articles, Art 239 AA and 239 AB to the Constitution.

 

  • Artt. 239 AA provides for the establishment of Legislative Assembly and Council of Ministers for the National Capital of Delhi.

 

  • The new Art 239 AB provides for the imposition of the President rule in the case of failure of constitution machinery in the National Capital Territory.

 

Seventieth Amendment Act, 1992

 

    Amended the Eighth Schedule of Constitution and added three more Indian Language as Official languages namely, Nepali, Konkani and Manipuri making the total number 18.

 

Seventy Third Amendment Act, 1992

 

  • Added a new Part IX to the Constitution consisting 16 Articles and new Schedule “Schedule Eleven”.

 

  • These articles provides for the Constitution, composition, election, duration and powers and responsibilities and power to levy taxes and duties by the Panchayti Rajya Institution in the rural areas.

 

  • The Eleventh Schedule contain 29 subjects on which the Panchyats shall have administrative control.

 

 

Seventy-Fourth Amendment Act, 1992

 

  • A new part IX-A to the Constitution relating to urban local bodies which consists of 18 Articles and a new Schedule “Twelfth Schedule”.

 

  • These Articles provide for the constitution, composition, election, duration of municipalities and power and responsibilities upon municipalities in respect of preparation of plans of economic development and levy taxes and duties by municipalities.

 

 

  • The Twelfth Schedule contains 18 subjects on which the municipalities shall exercise administrative control.

Seventy Fifth Amendment Act, 1993

 

It has amended Article 323-B and added a new Clauses (h) providing for establishment of tribunals for regulation and control of tenancy issues including the rights, title and interests of landlord and tenants.

 

Seventy Sixth Amendment Act

 

 Included the Tamil Nadu Act on 69% reservation of seats for backward classes in government jobs and educational institutions in the 9th schedule to the constitution.

 

Seventy Seventh Amendment Act

 

  • Passed to invalidate the effect of the Supreme Court judgement in the Mandal  Commission case.

 

  • Provides for reservation in promotions in government jobs in favour of SCs and STs, if they are inadequately represented.

 

Seventy Eighth Amendment Act

 

  • Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution

 

Seventy Ninth Amendment Act

 

    Extend reservation for SC / ST and nomination of Anglo Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 2010

 

Eightieth Amendment Act

 

  • Implement Tenth Finance Commission recommendation to simplify the tax structures by pooling and sharing all taxes between states and The Centre

 

Eighty-First Amendment Act

 

  • Protect SC / ST reservation in filling backlog of vacancies

 

Eighty Second Amendment Act

 

    Permit relaxation of qualifying marks and other criteria in reservation in promotion for SC / ST candidates

 

Eighty Third Amendment Act

 

    Exempt Arunachal Pradesh from reservation for Scheduled Castes in Panchayati Raj institutions

 

Eighty Fourth Amendment Act

 

    Extend the usage of 1971 national census population figures for statewise distribution of parliamentary seats

 

Eighty Sixth Amendment Act

 

 Provides Right to Education until the age of fourteen and Early childhood care until the age of six

 

Eighty Seventh Amendment Act

 

    Extend the usage of 1971 national census population figures for statewise distribution of parliamentary seats

 

Eighty Ninth Amendment Act

 

  • The National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes was bifurcated into

The National Commission for Scheduled Castes and The National Commission for Scheduled Tribes

 

Ninety First Amendment Act

 

  • Restrict Cabinet size to 15 % of legislative members & to strengthen Anti Defection laws

 

Ninety Second Amendment Act

 

  • Enable Levy of Service Tax & Include Bodo, Dogri and Maithali as National Languages

 

 

Ninety Third Amendment Act

 

    To enable provision of reservation for other backward classes (O.B.C.) in government as well as private educational institutions

 

Ninety Fourth Amendment Act

 

      To provide for a Minister of Tribal Welfare in newly created Jharkand and Chattisgarh States