Properties of matter
Properties of matter are any characteristics that can be measured, such as an object's density, color, mass, volume, length, malleability, melting point, hardness, odor, temperature, and more.
· Physical properties are properties of matter that can be observed without changing the chemical composition of the substance. Examples of physical properties include:
State of matter: Solid, liquid, gas, or plasma.
Density: The mass of a substance per unit volume.
Color: The way a substance reflects light.
Melting point: The temperature at which a solid melts.
Boiling point: The temperature at which a liquid boils.
Electrical conductivity: The ability of a substance to conduct electricity.
Thermal conductivity: The ability of a substance to conduct heat.
· Chemical properties are properties of matter that describe how a substance reacts with other substances. Examples of chemical properties include:
Flammability: The ability of a substance to catch fire.
Acidity: The ability of a substance to donate a proton to another substance.
Basicity: The ability of a substance to accept a proton from another substance.
Oxidation: The process in which a substance loses electrons.
Reduction: The process in which a substance gains electrons.
· Thermal properties of matter are properties of matter that describe how matter responds to changes in temperature and heat. Examples of thermal properties include:
Specific heat: The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by one degree Celsius.
Latent heat of fusion: The amount of heat required to melt one gram of a solid.
Latent heat of vaporization: The amount of heat required to vaporize one gram of a liquid.
Coefficient of thermal expansion: The amount by which a substance expands when its temperature is increased.
Changes of state are changes in the physical state of a substance, such as from solid to liquid or liquid to gas. Changes of state occur when the temperature of a substance is changed.
· Melting is the change of state from solid to liquid.
· Freezing is the change of state from liquid to solid.
· Vaporization is the change of state from liquid to gas.
· Condensation is the change of state from gas to liquid.
· Sublimation is the change of state from solid directly to gas.
· Deposition is the change of state from gas directly to solid.
Thermal conductivity is the ability of a substance to transfer heat from a hotter region to a colder region. Metals have high thermal conductivity, while nonmetals have low thermal conductivity.
Heat capacity is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a substance by one degree Celsius. The heat capacity of a substance depends on its mass and specific heat.
Heat transfer is the process by which heat is transferred from one object to another. Heat transfer can occur by conduction, convection, or radiation.
Conduction is the transfer of heat through direct contact between two objects.
Convection is the transfer of heat by the movement of currents in a fluid.
Radiation is the transfer of heat by electromagnetic waves.
Properties of matter are important in many areas of science and engineering. For example, the thermal conductivity of a metal is important in designing heat exchangers, while the chemical properties of a substance are important in developing new materials and drugs.