# Magnetic Effect of Current Part -2

**André-Marie Ampère:**

André-Marie Ampère was a scientist who experimented with the forces that act on current-carrying wires. The experiment was done in the late 1820s, around the same time Faraday was working on Faraday's law. Little did Faraday and Ampere know that Maxwell himself would combine their work four years later.

**Ampere's Law:**

According to Ampere's law, magnetic fields are related to the electric current generated in them. The law defines a magnetic field associated with a certain current, or vice versa, if the electric field does not change with time.

Ampere's law can be expressed as:

"The magnetic field produced by an electric current is proportional to the magnitude of that electric current by a proportionality constant equal to the permeability of free space."

The equation that explains Ampere's law, which is Maxwell's final equation, is given below:

**Ampere's Circuit Law: **

Ampere's circuit law can be written as the line integral of the magnetic field surrounding a closed circuit is equal to the algebraic sum of the currents through the circuit.

**Ampere's Circuit Law**

It is assumed that there is a current I in the conductor, then this current creates a magnetic field that surrounds the conductor.

The left side of the equation describes that if the wire is surrounded by an imaginary path and a magnetic field is added at each point, it is numerically equal to the current surrounded by that path, indicated by Ienc.

**Determining Magnetic Field by Ampere’s Law (Example):**

Suppose you have a wire long enough to carry a continuous current of I amperes. How do you determine the magnetic field surrounding the wire at any distance r from the wire?

The image below (image 1) shows a long wire carrying a current in amperes. We need to find the magnitude of the magnetic field at a distance r. Therefore, we draw the wire marked with a blue dashed line around the imaginary path on the right of the image. Determination of magnetic field (according to Ampere's law)

Figure 1

According to the second equation, if the field is integrated along the blue path, it must equal the closed current I.

The magnetic field does not change with distance r due to symmetry. The length of the path (in blue) in Figure 1 is equal to the circumference of the circle 2πr.

If a constant value H is added to the field, the left side of the equation looks like this:

**Ampere's Law **

Applications of Ampere's Law

Ampere's law is used:

Determine the magnetic induction due to a long current-carrying wire.

Determine the magnetic field inside the toroid.

Determine the magnetic field produced by a long current-carrying cylinder.

**Magnetic Field Due to a Cylindrical Wire:**

** **Magnetic field due to a cylindrical wire is obtained by the application of Ampere’s law.

Outside the Cylinder:

In all above cases magnetic field outside the wire at P, ∫B̄.dl̄̄ = µ₀I ⇒ B ∫dl = µ₀i.

B x 2πr = µ₀i ⇒ Bout = µ₀i/ 2πr

In all the above cases, B surface = µ₀i/ 2πR

Inside the hollow cylinder: Magnetic field inside the hollow cylinder is zero.

Inside the solid cylinder: Current enclosed by loop (I) is lesser than the total current.

Inside the solid cylinder

Current density is uniform, i.e. J = J ⇒ i’ = i x (A’ x A) = i (r²/R²), hence at inside point ∫B̄in.dl̄ = µ₀’ ⇒ B = µ₀ir/ 2πR².

Inside the thick portion of hollow cylinder: Current enclosed by loop is given by as, i’ = i x (A’/ A) = i x [(r² – R₁²)/ (R₂² – R₁²)]

Inside the thick portion of hollow cylinder

**Solenoid**

** Electromagnets **

Electromagnets are magnets with a wire wrapped around an iron core. When an electric current is applied, a magnetic field is created around the iron core. The magnetic field disappears when the power supply is interrupted. The core of a wire-wound magnet is ferromagnetic or ferromagnetic in nature. Iron is the most commonly used material in the core.

The formed magnetic field is controlled by electric power. A permanent magnet does not require a power source and the magnetic field cannot be controlled. Electromagnets are used to make solenoids, MRI machines, hard drives, relays, motors, speakers and generators.

A solenoid is a type of electromagnet designed to create a controlled magnetic field through a coil wound in a tightly packed coil. The solenoid is as shown below. The solenoid is a coil of wire and the piston is made of soft iron. A magnetic field is created around the coil when an electric current passes through it and pulls the piston. A solenoid can be said to be responsible for converting electrical energy into mechanical work.

Solenoids were born from the development of efficient and stronger magnets. In 1823, the French physicist and mathematician Andre-Marie Ampere coined the term solenoid to indicate a spiral coil.

Note. A solid core electromagnet is not considered a solenoid.

** Operation of solenoids **

After understanding the definition of a solenoid and its parts, let's learn how solenoids work. The solenoid works on the principle of electromagnetism. When an electric current passes through the coil, a magnetic field is created. When a metal core is placed inside the coil, the magnetic flux lines converge in the core. This increases the inductance of the coil compared to the air core. This concept is called electromagnetic induction.

As we know coils are made of many turns of copper wire tightly wound around it. A strong magnetic flux occurs when current flows through a conductor. The flux concentration is high in the core, while some flux is seen at the winding ends and also outside the winding. By increasing the current flow or increasing the rotation frequency, the magnetic strength of the solenoid can be increased.

The body is made of iron or steel. The magnetic field created by the coil surrounds the case. The piston provides the mechanical force for operation. Solenoids also have positive and negative terminals through which an object can be attracted or repelled.

Consider a solenoid whose length is greater than its radius. Enameled and insulated wire is wound with wire in the form of a thread with a small gap between the turns. The magnitude of the vector force produced by each turn and the total field produced by the solenoid is equal to the field produced by the circular loop. This provides the total field of the solenoid. The magnetic field lines produced inside a confined solenoid are shown below. The picture below shows a solenoid.

The field behind the solenoid is very thin. The field inside the solenoid is always parallel to its axis. The magnetic force produced by a solenoid can be determined using Ampere's law:

Where n is the number of turns of the wire per unit length, I is the current through the wire, and the direction is given by the right hand rule.

**Types of solenoid valves **

The different types of solenoid valves are:

- AC coated magnet
- DC-C frame magnet
- DC-D frame magnet
- Linear solenoid
- rotating magnet

Please tell us about each type of solenoid valve.

AC coated magnet

AC stack solenoids are known for the amount of force they can generate on the first hit. AC stack solenoid valves have a metal core and a metal coil. The solenoid core is made of shielded metal to reduce stray current. Shielded AC solenoids are capable of more travel than shielded DC solenoids. This type of solenoid valve emits a clear hissing sound when turned on.

C frame DC solenoid valve

C-frame DC solenoid valves have a C-frame wrapped around the coil. C-frame DC solenoids are said to be in a DC configuration and can be used in devices designed for AC power.

DC-D frame Solenoid

It is a two-piece frame that covers the coil. The lifting movement is controlled and can also work with alternating current solenoid.

linear Solenoid

This linear Solenoid features a coil of wire wrapped around a moving metal core. Useful for applying tensile or compressive forces to mechanical equipment. A linear Solenoid is used to start the device. This mechanism helps close the circuit and allow electricity to pass through solenoid.

A rotating magnet is used for the automatic control process. This magnet also has a coil and a core, but it works differently.

Applications of solenoid valves

It is used for construction vehicles, agricultural vehicles, special vehicles, industrial machinery, etc. Linear magnets are used in high security door mechanisms

Used in bike and car starters. Used in slot machines, scanners, printers, circuit breakers, photo shutters, etc.

**Toroid:**

A hollow circular ring in the shape of a donut. It consists of many turns of enameled wire, with almost no gap between the two turns.

A toroid can be thought of as a circular magnet used in a circuit as an inductor at low frequencies when large inductance is required.

The first toroidal core was invented by physicist Michael Faraday in his 1830s. He noticed that changing the magnetic field created tension in the wire. This phenomenon is known as Faraday's induction.

The magnetic field of a toroidal core is calculated by applying the **Ampere Circuit Law :**

Imagine a live wire wrapped many times around a hollow circular ring. In the figure above, suppose there is a magnetic field B at a point P inside the toroid. In the figure above, the loops are shown as Ampere loops forming circles through point P, resulting in concentric circles within the toroid.

Due to the symmetric field, the magnitude is the same at all points on the circle and the fields are tangent. therefore,

If the loop has N turns, the net current through that area is NI.

where I is the current in the toroid.

Using Ampere's law,

From this we can conclude that the magnetic field B is varying and not uniform across the cross section.

Toroid formula:

The toroidal core formula is used to calculate the number of turns in a toroidal coil.

Above is a pictorial representation of the cross section of the inner diameter of the toroid and wire. let me

A is the inner radius of the toroid

r is the wire radius

n is the number of loops

The wedge angle result is:

The relation between A, r, and n is given in the form of an equation:

**Force and Torque on Conductors :**

**Force on a conductor:**

Ampere proposed that if a conductor carrying current produces a magnetic field and exerts a force on a magnet, then the magnet should also exert a force on the conductor carrying current. Examples: - Suspend an aluminum rod horizontally on the wire between the poles of a horseshoe magnet, and pass an electric current through the wire, the aluminum rod will be displaced. If the direction of current is reversed, the direction of displacement will also be reversed. The applied force is greatest when the conductor is perpendicular to the magnetic field.

Fleming's Left Hand Rule: –

The direction of the force (movement) of a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field is determined by Fleming's left-hand rule. "If the thumb, index and middle fingers of the left hand are at right angles to each other so that the index finger points in the direction of the magnetic field and the middle finger points in the direction of the electric current, the thumb points in the direction of the force (direction of movement) of the conductor."

**Force on a Conductor Carrying Current in a Magnetic field:**

When a current-carrying conductor is placed in a uniform magnetic field, a force is exerted on the moving charges inside the conductor (due to the Lorentz force). This is the force required in a conductor through which current flows. To calculate this force, we consider various parameters as follows:

L is the conductor length,

i am the current that flows in him

q is the charge flowing through the conductor at time 't'.

v is the velocity of charge q,

B is the uniform magnetic field in which there is a conductor carrying current.

**A special case of force on a live conductor **

There are some special cases where a force acts on a current-carrying conductor, depending on the position of the conductor within the magnetic field. These cases are described as follows.

Case I: Conductor placed parallel to the magnetic field

When sin θ = 0 (minimum), i. H. θ = 0° or 180°, the force on the current element in the magnetic field is zero (minimum).

F_{min} = 0

If the current in the magnetic field is collinear with the magnetic field, the current element in the magnetic field experiences no force. Therefore, the force experienced by a conductor within a given magnetic field is minimal.

Case II: Conductor placed perpendicular to the magnetic field

For sin θ = 1 (maximum), i.H. θ = 90°, the force on the current element is maximum in the magnetic field (=ILB).

Fmax = ILB

The force direction is always perpendicular to the containing plane. L and B, which is the maximum force a conductor can experience in a given magnetic field.

**Force Between two Parallel Current-Carrying Conductors :**

We learned about the existence of magnetic fields caused by current-carrying conductors and the Biot-Savart law.

We also learned that an external magnetic field exerts a force on a current-carrying conductor, and the Lorentz force formula that underlies this principle.

Therefore, two studies show that two conductors carrying current exert a magnetic force on each other when they are placed close to each other. This section details this case.

Consider the system shown in the diagram above. Here we have two parallel current conductors separated by a distance 'd' such that one conducts the current I1 and the other conducts the current I2, as shown in the figure. Based on what we just learned, we can say that conductor 2 experiences the same magnetic field at any point along its length by conductor 1. The direction of magnetic force is shown in the diagram and can be found using the right-hand thumb rule. As you can see, the direction of the magnetic field is down due to the first conductor. From Ampere's circuit law, the magnitude of the magnetic field due to the first conductor is given by

The force exerted by conductor 1 on a segment of length L of conductor 2 is given by

Similarly, we can calculate the force that conductor 2 exerts on conductor 1. It can be seen that conductor 1 is subjected to the same force by conductor 2, but in the opposite direction. therefore,

It has also been observed that currents flowing in the same direction attract conductors to each other, and currents in opposite directions cause conductors to repel each other. The magnitude of the force acting per unit length is given by