Transpose conjugate of a Matrix

The transpose conjugate (also known as the Hermitian conjugate or adjoint) of a matrix involves two steps:

  1. Transpose: Flipping the matrix over its diagonal, similar to finding the transpose.
  2. Conjugate: Taking the complex conjugate of each element in the transposed matrix.


If A is an m×n matrix with complex elements:

  • The transpose conjugate of A is denoted as A or AH.
  • If A=[aij], then A=[bij], where bij=aji.


Consider a matrix A with complex elements as:


The transpose of A is:


The conjugate of AT is:



  1. (A)=A: Applying the transpose conjugate operation twice results in the original matrix.

  2. (kA)=kA: The transpose conjugate of a scalar multiplied by a matrix is equal to the conjugate of the scalar multiplied by the transpose conjugate of the matrix.

  3. (A+B)=A+B: The transpose conjugate of the sum of matrices is equal to the sum of their transpose conjugates.

  4. (AB)=BA: The transpose conjugate of the product of two matrices is equal to the product of their transpose conjugates in reverse order.

Uses and Significance:

  1. Hermitian Matrices: A square matrix is Hermitian if it is equal to its transpose conjugate (A=A). Hermitian matrices have significant applications in quantum mechanics, signal processing, and other scientific fields.

  2. Unitary Matrices: Similar to the orthogonal matrices in real numbers, unitary matrices in complex numbers have properties involving transpose conjugates.