Late Vedic Period

Sixth Century BCE

The sixth century BCE is considered a major turning point in early Indian history for several reasons:


The sixth century BCE marked a significant turning point in early Indian history due to several transformative developments that reshaped the socio-political, religious, and philosophical landscape of the Indian subcontinent. The sixth century BCE also saw the rise of early states, cities, and the growing use of iron. Some of the key reasons why the sixth century BCE is considered a major turning point in early Indian history include:

  1. Emergence of Religious and Philosophical Movements:
    • The sixth century BCE witnessed the emergence of several influential religious and philosophical movements that challenged traditional Vedic beliefs and practices.
    • Siddhartha Gautama, later known as the Buddha, founded Buddhism in the sixth century BCE in response to the prevailing social and religious conditions of his time.
    • Mahavira, the founder of Jainism, also lived during this period and laid the foundation for the Jain religious tradition, advocating principles of non-violence (ahimsa) and asceticism.
  1. Spread of New Religious Ideas:
    • The teachings of the Buddha and Mahavira spread rapidly across the Indian subcontinent during the sixth century BCE, attracting followers from various social backgrounds.
    • These new religious movements challenged the authority of the Brahmin priesthood and offered alternative paths to spiritual liberation and salvation.
  1. Rise of Urban Centers and Trade Networks:
    • The sixth century BCE witnessed the growth of urban centers and the expansion of trade networks in ancient India.
    • Cities such as Rajagriha (modern-day Rajgir), Vaishali, and Shravasti emerged as important political, economic, and cultural hubs.
    • Increased trade and commerce facilitated cultural exchange and interaction between different regions and communities.
  1. Transformation of Political Structures:
    • The sixth century BCE saw significant changes in political structures and governance systems in ancient India.
    • The emergence of republican states (Mahajanapadas) such as Magadha, Kosala, and Vajji challenged the traditional monarchical form of government and introduced new models of governance based on councils and assemblies.
  1. Influence of Urbanization and Social Stratification:
    • Urbanization and the growth of urban centers during the sixth century BCE led to social and economic transformations in ancient Indian society.
    • The rise of merchant classes, artisans, and skilled laborers contributed to the diversification of occupations and the emergence of new social strata.
    • Social mobility increased, and traditional hierarchies based on birth and caste began to be challenged.
  1. Literary and Intellectual Developments:


    • The sixth century BCE was a period of intellectual ferment, with the composition of influential literary and philosophical texts.
    • The Upanishads, a collection of philosophical treatises exploring the nature of reality and the self, were composed during this period, laying the foundation for later Hindu philosophical thought.

·       7. Coinage

The development of coinage, with punch marked coins made of silver and copper used during the period 

Overall, the sixth century BCE marked a period of profound change and innovation in early Indian history, characterized by the emergence of new religious, philosophical, political, and social movements that laid the groundwork for subsequent developments in Indian civilization.