Indian National Army

  • Rash Bihari Bose organised a conference in Tokyo in March 1942.
  • Another conference in Bangkok in June 1942.
  • Out of this conference was born the Indian Independence League and a decision to form and Indian National Army for the liberation of India.
  • Mohan Singh and Indian Officer in British Army who deserted and wanted the Japanese for help first conceived the idea of Indian National Army in Malaya in 1942.
  • The Indian prisoners of war were handed over by the Japanese to Mohan Singh who recited them in Indian National Army.
  • Taken over and organised by S.C. Bose in 1943 in Singapore.
  • He set up headquarters at Singapore and Rangoon.
  • Andaman and Nicobar were given to S.C. Bose and renamed Sahid and Swaraj respectively.
  • Attack through the mountainous areas of Burma in Feb. 4, 1944.
  • Defeat of Japan shattered all hopes of Indian National Army and failure of its attempt to launch military attack on British India.
  • Trail of Indian National Army soldiers at red fort in Aug. 1945.
  • Some prominent INA officers put on trial were Gen. Shah Nawaz, Gurdyal Singh Dillon, Prem Seghal etc.
  • Congress declared its support to INA soldiers at Bombay session in Sept. 1945.
  • Defense of the INA soldiers taken up by Bhulabhai Desai, Tej Sahadur Sapru, K.N. Katju, J.L. Nehru and Asaf Ali.
  • The British Government felt it expedient to set INA solders free.



  • Came into existence on 2 September 1946 in accordance with Cabinet Mission’s proposal and was headed by J.L. Nehru. Muslim League refused to join it initially.
  • Wavell persuaded the League leaders to join on 26 October 1946.
  • 8 December 1946 - Constituent Assembly begins its session with Liaqat Ali Khan of Muslim League as the Finance Minister.
  • The interim government, obstructed by League members and bureaucracy was reduced to a figurehead and was unable to control the communal carnage.



  • Prime Minister Atlee on 20 February 1947 announced that the British would withdraw from India by 30 June 1948 and that Lord Mountbatten would replace Wavell.  
  • British power and obligations vis-à-vis the princely states would lapse with transfer of power but these would not be transferred to any successor government in British India.  
  • Partition of the country was implicit in the provision that if the constituent assembly were not fully representative then power would be transfer to more than one central govt.



  • His earlier plan Balkan was abandoned for the 3 June plan.
  • The plan declared that power would be handed over by 15 August 1947 based on dominion status to India and Pakistan.
  • Mountbatten supported the Congress stand that the princely states must not be given the option of independence. They would join either India or Pakistan.
  • Boundary Commission was to be headed by Radcliffe and the award was to be announced after republic day, which was a major cause of massacres.
  • Punjab and Bengal Legislative Assembles would meet in two groups, Hindu and Muslims, to vote for partition. If a simple majority of either group voted for partition.  
  • In case of partition, two dominions and two Constituent Assemblies would be created.



  • Power was to be transferred to the two new dominions of India and Pakistan on 15 august 1947.
  • The two dominions would have their territories defined but could include or exclude any territory themselves.
  • The constitution making bodies for the two dominions should also word as Legislative bodies for the respective dominions.
  • The reserved and special powers of the Governor-General would be abolished.
  • The native states were free to either join of the dominions or remain independent.
  • The British paramount would stand abolished.
  • The post of India Minister would stand abolished.
  • Pakistan was to comprise Sind, British Baluchistan, NWFP, West Punjab and East Bengal.