Indian National Army

  • Rash Bihari Bose organised a conference in Tokyo in March 1942.
  • Another conference in Bangkok in June 1942.
  • Out of this conference was born the Indian Independence League and a decision to form and Indian National Army for the liberation of India.
  • Mohan Singh and Indian Officer in British Army who deserted and wanted the Japanese for help first conceived the idea of Indian National Army in Malaya in 1942.
  • The Indian prisoners of war were handed over by the Japanese to Mohan Singh who recited them in Indian National Army.
  • Taken over and organised by S.C. Bose in 1943 in Singapore.
  • He set up headquarters at Singapore and Rangoon.
  • Andaman and Nicobar were given to S.C. Bose and renamed Sahid and Swaraj respectively.
  • Attack through the mountainous areas of Burma in Feb. 4, 1944.
  • Defeat of Japan shattered all hopes of Indian National Army and failure of its attempt to launch military attack on British India.
  • Trail of Indian National Army soldiers at red fort in Aug. 1945.
  • Some prominent INA officers put on trial were Gen. Shah Nawaz, Gurdyal Singh Dillon, Prem Seghal etc.
  • Congress declared its support to INA soldiers at Bombay session in Sept. 1945.
  • Defense of the INA soldiers taken up by Bhulabhai Desai, Tej Sahadur Sapru, K.N. Katju, J.L. Nehru and Asaf Ali.
  • The British Government felt it expedient to set INA solders free.

 

INTERIM GOVERNMENT (September 1946)

  • Came into existence on 2 September 1946 in accordance with Cabinet Mission’s proposal and was headed by J.L. Nehru. Muslim League refused to join it initially.
  • Wavell persuaded the League leaders to join on 26 October 1946.
  • 8 December 1946 - Constituent Assembly begins its session with Liaqat Ali Khan of Muslim League as the Finance Minister.
  • The interim government, obstructed by League members and bureaucracy was reduced to a figurehead and was unable to control the communal carnage.

 

ATTLEE’S ANNOUNCEMNT (FEBRUARY 1947)

  • Prime Minister Atlee on 20 February 1947 announced that the British would withdraw from India by 30 June 1948 and that Lord Mountbatten would replace Wavell.  
  • British power and obligations vis-à-vis the princely states would lapse with transfer of power but these would not be transferred to any successor government in British India.  
  • Partition of the country was implicit in the provision that if the constituent assembly were not fully representative then power would be transfer to more than one central govt.

 

MOUNTABTTEN PLAN (1947)

  • His earlier plan Balkan was abandoned for the 3 June plan.
  • The plan declared that power would be handed over by 15 August 1947 based on dominion status to India and Pakistan.
  • Mountbatten supported the Congress stand that the princely states must not be given the option of independence. They would join either India or Pakistan.
  • Boundary Commission was to be headed by Radcliffe and the award was to be announced after republic day, which was a major cause of massacres.
  • Punjab and Bengal Legislative Assembles would meet in two groups, Hindu and Muslims, to vote for partition. If a simple majority of either group voted for partition.  
  • In case of partition, two dominions and two Constituent Assemblies would be created.

 

INDIAN INDPENDENCE ACT 1947

  • Power was to be transferred to the two new dominions of India and Pakistan on 15 august 1947.
  • The two dominions would have their territories defined but could include or exclude any territory themselves.
  • The constitution making bodies for the two dominions should also word as Legislative bodies for the respective dominions.
  • The reserved and special powers of the Governor-General would be abolished.
  • The native states were free to either join of the dominions or remain independent.
  • The British paramount would stand abolished.
  • The post of India Minister would stand abolished.
  • Pakistan was to comprise Sind, British Baluchistan, NWFP, West Punjab and East Bengal.