General Science (Biology)

Nutrition

  • Nutrition includes all the stuff that’s in food, such vitamins, protein, fat, carbohydrates and more. It’s important to eat a variety of food, including fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and gains, because these are essential to attain healthy body and mind.
  • But, excessive inake of food claories leads to obesity, high B.P. and heart problems, and the person gets prone to diabetes, hypertension and other disorders.
  • Water is also an important part of a balanced diet. It helps in digestion transpoeration, exretion and to regulate body temperature (body contains 65% water).
  • Lost water can be recouped (regained) in 3 ways-By drinking water, by getting water as part of food and by retaing and utillising the water produced in the metabolism.
  • Though roughage does not provide energy but it helps in retaining water in the body.
  • Vitamins also do not provide energy but help in different physiological processes.
  • Apart from organic chemicals such as C, H, O, N, human body needs inorganic chemical elements, called minerals, for a wide range of functions. There elements are present in the form of icons.
  • Minerals help maintain the volume of water necessary to life processes in the body.

CARBOHYDRATES

  • Most foods contain carbohydrates, which the body breaks down into simple sugars—the major source of energy for the bosy.
  • There are two major types of carbohydrates (or carbs) in foods: simple and complex.
  • Simple carbohydrates: These are also called simple sugars. Simple sugars are found in refined sugars, like the white sugar. If you lollipop. But you’ll also find simple sugars in more nutritious foods, such as fruit and milk. It’s better to get your simple sugars from food like fruit and milk. Why? Because they contain vitamans, fibre, and important nutrients like calcium. A lollipop does not.
  • Complex carbohydrates: These are also called starches. Starches include grain products, such as bread, crackers, pasta, and rice. As with simple sugars, some complex carbohydrate foods are better choices than others. Refined grians, such as white flour and white rice, have been processed, which removes nutrients and fibre. But unrefined grains still contain these vitamins and minerals. Unrefined grains also are rich in fibre, which helps your digestive system work well. Fibre helps you feel rull, so you are less likely to overeat these foods. That explains why a bowl of oatmeal fills you up better than a sugar candy.
  • Consitutes 3 elements-C, H and O.
  • 1gm gives 17 kj of energy (or 4 kcal of energy).
  • Main source of energy providers.
  • An adult man with average weight and doing moderate work needs about 500gm of carbohydrates daily. Growing child, nursing mother and sportsf-persons need more carbohydrates.
  • D- fructose is the sweetest of sugars. It is found in fruit juices, honey, etc.

Fats

  • Fat is a component in food. Some foods, including most fruits ans vegetables, have almost no fat. Other foods have plenty of fat. They include nuts, oils, butter and meats like beaf.
  • Provides twice the energy of carbohydrates (1gm provides 37lkl or 9 kcal of energy) (2.25 times more energy than carbohydrates).
  • Acts as the reserve food materials because excess fat is stored in the liver and as adipose tissue. As the fats produce more energy on oxidation than glycogen, thay are mre suitable as stored food. Stored fat is used as fuel when glucose is not available.
  • Requirement-50gms daily.
  • A person should draw 10-15% of total calorie requirements from fact.
  • Some fats are better than orhers. Here are the three major types.
  • Unsaturated fats: These are found in plant foods and fish. These may be good for heart health. The best of the unsaturated fats are found in olive oil, peanut oil, canola oil, albacore tunaand salmon.
  • Saturated fats: These fats are found in meat and other animal products, such as butter, cheese, and all milk except skim. Saturated fats are also in palm and coconut oils, which are oftern used in commercial baked goods. Excess of saturated fat increases the blood-cholesterol level and may cause arteriosclerosis (hardening of arteries). This may lead to hert attack.
  • Trans fats: These fats are found in margarine, especially the sticks. Trans fats are also found in certain foods that you buy at the store or in a restaurant, such as snack foods, baked goods, and fried foods. Like saturated fats, trans fats can raise cholesterol and increase the risk of heart disease.
  • In whales and seals, the fat of the skin forms a thisck layer called blubber which is not only reserve food but also maintains the body temperature.

PROTEINS

  • Protein builds up, maintains, and replaces the tissues in body. Muscles, organs, and immune system are made up mostly of protein.
  • 75% of our body is proteins only.
  • Made uo of C, H, O, and N.
  • Many foods contain protein but the best sources are beef, poultry, fish eggs, dairy products, nuts, seeds, and legumes like black beans and lentils.
  • Body uses the protein to make lots of specialised protein molecules that have specific jobs. For instance, body uses protein to make Haemoglobin, the part of red blood cells that carries oxygen to every part of body. Other proteins are used to build cardiac muscli, i.e. heart.
  • Proteins are sometimes described as long necklaces with differently shaped beads. Each bead is a small amino acid. These amino acids can join together to make thousands of different proteins.
  • Scientists have found many different amino acids in protein, but only 22 of them are very important to human health.
  • Of these 22 amino acids, body can make 13 of them. Body can’t make the other nine amino acids, but it can get them by protein-rich foods. They are called essential amino acids. They include isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine.
  • Protens from animal sources, such as meat and milk, is called complete, because it contains aall nine of the essential amino acids.
  • Most vegetable proteins are considered incomplete because it lacks one or more of the essential amino acids.
  • About 70-100gms of proteins are daily needed.

 

 

IMPORTANT VITAMINS

 

Name

Sources

Effect of deficiency

Vit.A

Vit.A Synthesised in cells of liver and intestinal mucous members from carotenoid pigments; found in milk, butter, kidneys, egg yolk, liver, fish oil etc.

Xerophthalia (due to non function of lacrimal gland of conjunctivaj is characterized by keratinized conjunctive and keratinization in linings  of respiratory passages, urinary bladder, ureters and intestinal mucosa; neight-blindness (nyctalopia, a disturbance of rod vision); impaired growth glandular secretion and reproduction. [Hypervitaminosis A results in lack of appetite, sparcity of hair, itching rash, painful swellings over long bones.]

B1

 (Thiamine)

Rice bran, whole wheat flour, oatmeal, eggs, yeast, meat, lever etc.

Beri-beri:Loss of appertite and vigour, oedema of legs, constipation weak hearbeat, muscle atrophy, even paralysis.

B2 or G

(Riboflavin)

Cheese, eggs, yeast, tomatoes, green vegetables, liver, meat, cereals etc.

Cheilosis (fissures at the corners of mouth and lips) digestive disorders, burning sensations in skin and eyes, headache, mental depression, scally dermatitis at angles of nostrils, kereatits of cornea, glosstits (inflammation of tongue).

B3 orPP3

(Nicotinic acid or Niacin)

Freash meat, liver, fish, cereals, milk, pulses, yeast, etc.

Pellagraf characterized by dermatitis (inflammation of skin), diarrhea, dementila and death (hence called 4 D inflammation of gut mucous membrance, nervousness, headch, fatigue, mental depression etc.

B6

(Pyridoxine)

Milk, cereals, fish, meat liver, yeast; synthesized by intestinal bacteria

Dermatitis, anaemia, convulsions, nausea, vomiting, mental disorders.

B5

(Pantothenic acid)

All food; more in yeast, liver, kidneys, eggs, meat, milk , sugarcane, groundnut, tomatoes

Dermatitis, gastro-intestinal disorders, anamia, reduced secretion of steroid hormones, buring feet syndrome, fatigue, nausea, fatty liver in men.

Vit. H

(Cyanocobalami-ne)

Meat, fish,liver, eggs, milk; synthesized by intestinal bacteria

Scurvy (also called sailor’s disease) characterized by delayed wound-healing and growth retardation; breakdown of immune defense system; fragile blood vessels, spongy and bleeding gums and bones; exhaustion; nervous breakdown; high fever

Vit.D (Ergocalciferol and Cholecalciferol)

Synthesized in skin cells in sunlight from 7-dehydrocholesterol (i.e., provitamin D3) liver, kidneys, egg yolk, fish oil, etc.

Rickets, a disorder of children of 6 months to 2 years due to deficient ossification of bones is charaterised with bending of bones and swelling joints. Osteomalacia, a disorder of adults characterized by fragility of bones. (Hypervitaminosis D results in deposition of calcium in soft tissue).

Vit. E

(Tocopherol)

Green vegetables, oils, egg yolk, wheat, animal tissues.

Reversible sterility in female, characterized by normal ovulation, fertilization and implantation by foetus time. In males, it causes atrophy of spermatogenic tubbles of tests, it further causes sterility. Muscular dystrophy, anaemia due to increased breakdown of blood cells.

Vit.K

(Phylloquinone)

 

Carrots, lettuce, cabbage, tomatoes, liver, egg yolk, cheese, synthesized by colon bactria

Haemorhages, exercise bleeding of injury due to delayed blood clothing, condition is called hyporo

 

 

 

IMPORTANT MINERALS

 

Mineral

Calcium (Ca)*

Sources

Milks, cereals, chesse, green vegetables

Significance

Required for formationof teeth and bones, blood clothing, functions of nerves and muscles

Effects of deficiency

Weak teeth and bones; retarded body growth.

Phosphorus (P)

Milk, meat cereals

Required for formation of teeth and bones and acid-base balance; component of ATP, DNA, RNA

Weak teath and bones; retarded body growth and physiology.

Sulphur (S)

Many proteins of food

Component of many amino acids

Disturbed protein metabolism

Potassium (K)

Meat, milk, cereals, fruits and vegetables

Required for acid-base balance, water regulation and function of nerves.

Low blood pressure, weak muscles; risk of paralysis.

Chlorine (CI)

Table salt

Required for acid-base balance; component of gastric juice

Loss of appetite; muscle cramps.

Sodium (Na)

Table salt

Required for acid-base and water balances and nervous functions

Low blood pressure, loss of appetite; muscle cramps.

Magnesium (Mg)

Cereals, green vegetables

Cofactor of many enzymes of glycolysis and a number of other metabolic reactions dependent upon ATP

Irregularities of metabolism, principally affecting nervous functions.

Iron (Fe)

Meat, eggs, cereals, green vegetables

Component of haemoglobin and cytochromes

Anaemia, weakness and weak immunity.

Iodine (I)

Milk, cheese, sea food, iodised salt

Important component of thyroxine hormone

Goitre, Cretinism.

Fluorine (F)

Dringking water, tea, sea food

Maintenance of bones and teeth

Weak teeth, larger amount causes motting of teeth.

         

 

 

IMPORTANT HORMONES

Name

Source

Effect

Neurohormones

Hypothalamus

Release of hormones from pituitary.

Grownth stimulating Hormone (GSH)

Pituitary Glands

Controls the genral growt of the body.

 

Gonadotrophic Hormone (GTH)

Pituitary Glands

Stimulates the primary sex hormones i.e., overlies and tests

Lactrogenic Hormone

Pituitary Glands

Initiates milk production in the pregnant female.

Thyroteophic Hormone

Pituitary Glands

Aids in the regulation of thyroid secretion.

Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH)

Pituitary Glands

Influences the secretion from the cortex of adrenal glands.

Dianetpgenic or Metabolic Hormone oxytocin or Pitocin

Pituitary Glands

Influences metabolism

vasapression or ADH (Anti-Diuretic Hormone)

Pituitary Glands

Regulates reabsorption of water from the kindly tubules.

Thyroxine

Thyroid Glands

regulates physical, mental and sexual development.

Throcalcitonin

Thyroid Glands

controls the amount of calcium in the body.

Partharmone

Parathyriod Gland

influences Ca and PH metabolism

Thyrimne Insulin

Thymus Gland Pancreas (Beta cells)

Formation of antibodies in children

Glucagon

Pancreas (Gama cells)

Iincreases blood sugar level

Somatostrain

Pancreas (Gama cells)

Controls the functioning of alpha and beta cells of Pancreas

Adrenaline or Ephinephrine

Adrenal Glands

Liberation of glucose from glycogen stored in liver and increases the rate of metabolim.

Mineralo

Adrenal Glands

Maintain electrolyte balance in the body and distribution of water to the tissue.

Gluco corticoids

Adrenal Glands

Influences carbohydrates metabolism and also effect protein and fat metabolism.

Testosterone

Testes

Responsible for male secondary sexual characters.

Estrogen

Ovaries

Controls the female secondary sexual characters.

Progesterone

Ovaries

Essential for te completion of each menstrual cycle.

Relaxim

Ovaries

Helps in easy birth.

 

 

IMPORTANT DIGESTIVE ENZYMES

Source

Enzymes

Acts on

Products

Salivery Glands

Ptyalin (Salivary Amylase)

Starch, glycogen, dextrins

Maltose, Isomaltose, ‘Limit’ Dextrins

Gastric

  1. Pepsin (Activated from Pepsinogen by HCI)
  2. Renin (Activated from Prorennin by HCI)
  3. Gastric Lipase

Proteins, Calcium paracaseinate

 

Casein

 

Fats

paracasein and Whey Proteins

Fatty Acids and Monoglycerides Peptides

Pancreas

  1. Trypsin (Activated from Trypsinogen by Enterokinase)
  2.  Chymotrypsin (Activated from Chymotrypasiogen by Trypsin)
  3. Pancreative Amylase
  4. Pancreative    Lipase

 

 

  1. Carboxypeptidases (Activated from procarboxypetidases by Trypsin)
  2. DNAse

 

 

  1. RNAse

 

Protiens

 

 

Protiens , Casein

 

 

 

 

Strach, Glycogen, Dextrins,

Emulsified fats

 

 

 

 

Peptides

 

 

 

 

DNA

 

RNA

 

 

RNA

Peptides

Peptides, Paracasein (curd)

 

 

 

Maltose, Isomaltose, ‘Limit’ Dextrins

Fatty Acids, Glycerol, Monoglycerides and Triglycerides and Triglycerides

Amino Acids and Dipetides

 

 

Dexoxyribonucle otides

 

Ribonucleotides

Intestinal Glands

  1. Intestinal amylase
  2. Maltase
  3. Isomaltase
  4. ‘Limit’ Dextrinase
  5. Invertase (Sucrase)
  6. Lactase
  7. Intestinal Lipase
  8. Nucleotidases
  9. Nuclesotidases

 

Strach, glycogen, dextrins

Maltase

Isomaltose

‘Limit’ Dextrins

Sucrose

 

Lactose

Emulsified fats (Tri-, Di-Monoglycerides)

Nucleotides

 

Nucleosides

 

Maltose, Isomaltose, ‘Limit’ Dextrins

Glucose

Glucose

Glucose

Glucose, Fructose

 

Glucose, Fructose

Fatty Acids, Glycerol

 

Nucleosides and InorrganicPhosphates

Nitrogenous Bases, Pantose sugars.

           

 

MAIN DISEASES

BY VIRUS

Chickenpox, Measles, Polio, Rabies, Mumps, Influenza, Hepatitis, Herpes, AIDS, Trachoma (of Cornea).

BY BACTERIA

Cholera, Diptheria, Tuberclosis, Leprosy, Tetanus, Typhoid, Plague, Whooping, Cough, Score, Throat, Pneumonia, Gonorrhoea, Syphilis, Botulism.

BY FUNGI

Ringworm, Athlete’s foot, Dhobie itch.

BY PROTOZOANS

Amoebiasis, Malaria, Sleeping Sick-ness, Kalazar, Diarrhoea, Piarrhoea

BY HELMINTHES/WORMS

Filaria, Tapeworm and Hookworm transmission.

 

MAJOR INVENTIONS

Inventions

Inventor

Country

CT Scan

Hounsfield

Britain

Diesel Engine

Rudolf Diesel

Germany

Disc Brake

Dr.F. Lanchester

Britain

Disc Video

Phillips Co.

Holland

DNA Structure

Cricket-UK, Watson-US, Wilkins-UK

Holland

Dynamo

Hypolite Pixii

France

Electric Flat Iron

H.W. Seelay

U.S.A

Electric Lamp

Thomas Alve Edison

U.S.A

Electric Motor (DC)

Zenobe Gramme

Belgium

Electric Moter (AC)

Nikola Tesla

U.S.A

Electric Iron

Henry W.Seely

U.S.A

Electric Washing machine

Alva J.Fisher

U.S.A

Electro-Magnet

William Sturgeon

Britain

Electron

Thomson J

Britain

Electroplating

Luigi Brugnatelli

Italy

Electonic Computer

Dr. Alan M. Turing

Britain

Fascimile Machine

Alexander Bain

Britain

Fibre optics

Kepany

Britain

Film (moving outlines)

Louis Prince

France

Film (talking)

J.Eng, J. Mussolle & H. Vogt

Germany

Film (musical sound)

Dr. Le de Forest

U.S.A

Microphone

Alexander Graham Bell

U.S.A

Microprocessor

Robert Noyce & Gordon Moore

U.S.A

Morcoscope, comp.

Z. Janssen

Netherlands

Microscope, elect.

Ruska Knoll

Germany

Microwave Oven

Percy Le Baron Spencer

U.S.A

Motor Cycle

G. Daimler

Germany

Movie Projector

Thomas Edison

U.S.A

MRI

Damadian

U.S.A

Neon Lamp

Georges Calcude

France

Neutron

Chadwick

Britain

Neutron bomb

Samuel Cohen

U.S.A

Nylon

Dr.Wallace H Carothers

U.S.A

Optical Fibre

Narinder Kepany

Germany

Paper

                    -

China

Pacemaker

Zoll

U.S.A

Pasteurisation

Louis Pasteur

France

Pencil

Lacques-Nicolas Conte

France

Periodic table

Mendeleyev

Russia

Photocopier

Carison

U.S.A

Photoelectric cell

Julius Elster, Hans F Geitel

Germany

Photo film, celluloid

Reichenbach

U.S.A

Photo film, Transport

Goodwin Eastern

U.S.A

Photography (on metal)

J.N. Niepce

France

Photography (on Paper)

W.H. Fox Talbot

Britain

Photography (on film)

John Carbutt

U.S.A

Piano

Cristofori

Italy

Pistol, revolver

Colt

U.S.A

Plutonium fission

kennedy, Wnal, Seaborg, Segre

U.S.A

Pop-up toaster

Charles Stile

U.S.A

Printing Press

Johann Gutenberg

Germany

Printing (rotary)

Richard Hoe

U.S.A

Printing (Web)

William Bullock

U.S.Aqq

Proton

Rutherford

N. Zealand

Quantum Theory

Plank

Germany

Radar

A.H. Taylor & Leo C. Young

U.S.A

Radiocarbon dating

Libby

U.S.A

Radio Telegraphy

Dr. Mohion loomis

U.S.A

Radio Telegraphy (Trans Atlantic)

G. Marconi

Italy

Rayon

Sir Joseph Swan

Britain

Floppy disk

IBM

U.S.A

Frequancy Modulation (FM)

E.H. Amstrong

U.S.A

Frisbee

Fred Morrission

U.S.A

Fountain Pen

Lewis E. Waterman

U.S.A

Galvanometer

Andre-Marie Ampere

France

       

DISCOVERIES/INVENTIONS IN MEDCINE

Discovery/Invention

Discover/Inventor

Country

Adrenaline

Schafer and Oliver

Britain

Anesthesi, Local

Koller

Austia

Anesthesia, Spinal

Bier

Germany

Anti-toxins (Science of Immunity)

Behring & Kitasato

Germany, Japan

Aspirin

Dreser

Germany

Ayurveda

                   __      

India

Bacteria

Leeuwenhock

Netherlands

Bacteriology

Ferdinand Cohn

Germany

Biochemistry

Jan Baptisla Van Helmont

Belgium

Blood Plasma storage (Blook bank)

Drew

U.S.A

Blood Transfussion

Jean-Baptiste Denys

France

Cardiac Pacemaker

A.S. Hyman

U.S.A

CAT Scanner

Godfrey Hounsfield

Britain

Chemotherapy

Paracelsus

Switzerland

Choloroform as anaesthetic

James Simpson

Britain

Chloromycetain

Burkhoder

U.S.A

Cholera T.B. germs

Robert Koch

Germany

Circulation of blood

William Harvey

Britain

Cryo-Surgrey

Henry Swan

U.S.A

Vaccine, Meningitis

Gardon et al Connaught Lab

U.S.A

Vaccine, Polio

Jonas Salk

U.S.A

Vaccine, Polio-oral

Albert sabin

U.S.A

Vaccine, Rabies

Louis Pasteur

France

Vaccine, Smallpox

 

 

Virology

Jenner Ivanovski & Bajemick

USSR, Netherlands

Vitamin A

Mc Collum and M.Davis

U.S.A

Vitamin B1

Minot & Murphy

U.S.A

Vitalmin C

Forelich Hoist

Norway

Vitamin D

Mc Collun

U.S.A

Vitamin K

Doisy Dam

U.S.A

Western Scientific Therapy

Hippocrates

Greece

Yoga

Patanjali

India

Diphthena germs

Klebs & Loffer

Germany

Electro-Cardiograph

Willem Elinthoven

Netherlands

Electro-ancephalogram

Hand Berger

Germany

Embryology

Kari Emest-Van Baer

Estonia

First Test Tube Baby

Steptoe & Edwards

Britain

Gene Therapy of humans

Martin Clive

U.S.A

Genes associated with Cancer

Robert Weinberg & others

U.S.A

Heart Transplant Surgery

Christain Bamard

S.Africa

Histology

Marie Bichat

France

Hypodemic Syringe

Alexander Wood

Britain

Kidney Machine

Kolf

Netherlands

Leprosy Bacillus

Hansen

Norway

LSD (Lysergic acid dietylamide)

Hoffman

Switzerland

Malaria Germs

Laveran

France

Reserpine

Jal Vakil

India

Rh-Factor

Kari Landsteiner

U.S.A

Serology

Paul Ehrlich

Germany

Sex hormones

Eugen Steniach

Australia

Small Pox eradicated

W.H.O. Declartion

UN

Stethoscope

Rene Laennec

France

Stretomycin

Selman Waksmsnn

U.S.A

Synthesis Antigens

Landsteiner

U.S.A

Terramycin

Finlay & Othes

U.S.A

Thyroxin

Edward Calvin-Kendall

U.S.A

Typhus Vaccine

J Nicolle

France

Vaccination, Mealses

Edward Jenner

Britain

Morphine

Enders

U.S.A

Neurology

Friderich Sertumer

Germany

Nuclear Magnetic resonance Imaging

Raymond Damadian

U.S.A

Open Heart Surgery

Walton Lillehel

U.S.A

Oral Contraceptive pills

Geogory Pincus, Rock

U.S.A