The Union Executive

Introduction

  • The Union Executive in India is the branch of government responsible for implementing and enforcing laws and policies at the national level.
  • It comprises the President, Vice President, Prime Minister, Council of Ministers, and the Attorney General of India.

1. President of India

  • Head of the State:

    • Ceremonial role, represents the country, and is the symbol of the nation's unity and integrity.
  • Executive Powers:

    • Appoints the Prime Minister, presides over the Council of Ministers, and has certain veto powers over legislation.
  • Term and Election:

    • Five-year term, elected by an Electoral College consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and state legislatures.

2. Vice President of India

  • Office and Role:

    • Serves as the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha (Council of States).
    • Acts as the President in case of a vacancy or when the President is unable to discharge duties.
  • Election and Term:

    • Elected by an Electoral College consisting of members of both houses of Parliament.

3. Prime Minister

  • Head of Government:

    • Leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha (House of the People), forms the government.
  • Powers and Functions:

    • Policy-making, governance, and decision-making for the country.
    • Appoints and leads the Council of Ministers.

4. Council of Ministers

  • Composition:

    • Consists of Cabinet Ministers, Ministers of State, and Deputy Ministers.
    • Appointed by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister.
  • Functions:

    • Formulate policies, administer government departments, and implement laws and programs.

5. Attorney General of India

  • Legal Advisor to the Government:

    • Provides legal advice to the government and represents the government in legal matters.
  • Appointment and Tenure:

    • Appointed by the President, holds office during the pleasure of the President.

Roles and Responsibilities

1. Executive Functions

  • Policy Implementation:
    • Execute laws, policies, and decisions for the effective functioning of the government.

2. Administrative Functions

  • Public Administration:
    • Supervise and manage the public administration for efficient service delivery.

3. Diplomatic Functions

  • Foreign Affairs:
    • Represent India in international relations, negotiations, and diplomacy.

4. Military Functions

  • Commander-in-Chief:
    • President is the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces.

5. Legislative Functions

  • Assent to Bills:
    • President gives assent to bills passed by Parliament, making them laws.