- Fundamental Duties are a set of moral and civic responsibilities outlined in Part IV-A (Article 51A) of the Indian Constitution.
- Added through the 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1976, on the recommendation of the Swaran Singh Committee.
Purpose and Significance
1. Promoting a Sense of Responsibility
- Encourages citizens to be responsible and conscious of their duties towards society and the nation.
2. Balancing Rights with Duties
- Provides a balance between rights and duties, emphasizing that enjoyment of rights comes with the fulfillment of corresponding duties.
3. Upholding the Integrity of the Nation
- Promotes a sense of patriotism and national unity, emphasizing the need to protect and uphold the sovereignty, unity, and integrity of the nation.
Key Fundamental Duties
1. To Abide by the Constitution and Respect its Ideals and Institutions (Article 51A a)
- Citizens must uphold the Constitution and respect its ideals, the National Flag, and the National Anthem.
2. To Cherish and Follow the Noble Ideals that Inspired the Freedom Struggle (Article 51A b)
- Encourages citizens to value and follow the noble ideals that inspired India's struggle for freedom.
3. To Uphold and Protect the Sovereignty, Unity, and Integrity of India (Article 51A c)
- Citizens are expected to defend and protect the sovereignty, unity, and integrity of India.
4. To Defend the Country and Render National Service when Called Upon to do so (Article 51A d)
- Citizens may be required to render national service during times of need, such as national emergencies or war.
5. To Promote Harmony and the Spirit of Common Brotherhood Among All the People of India, Transcending Religious, Linguistic, and Regional or Sectional Diversities (Article 51A e)
- Encourages citizens to work towards promoting harmony and brotherhood among all citizens, transcending diversities.
6. To Value and Preserve the Rich Heritage of Our Composite Culture (Article 51A f)
- Citizens should respect and preserve the diverse cultural heritage of India.
7. To Protect and Improve the Natural Environment Including Forests, Lakes, Rivers and Wildlife, and to Have Compassion for Living Creatures (Article 51A g)
- Encourages citizens to protect and conserve the environment and wildlife.
8. To Develop the Scientific Temper, Humanism, and the Spirit of Inquiry and Reform (Article 51A h)
- Promotes the development of a scientific temper and encourages a questioning and reformative mindset.
9. To Safeguard Public Property and to Abjure Violence (Article 51A i)
- Citizens are expected to protect public property and reject violence.
10. To Strive Towards Excellence in all Spheres of Individual and Collective Activity (Article 51A j)
- Encourages citizens to strive for excellence in their endeavors, be it individual or collective.
Enforcement and Implementation
1. Legal Enforcement
- Not legally enforceable in courts, but Parliament can enforce them by legislation.
2. Educational Institutions
- Educational institutions are mandated to promote awareness and adherence to Fundamental Duties.