Directive Principles of State Policy


  • Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP) are guidelines or principles outlined in Part IV (Articles 36 to 51) of the Indian Constitution.
  • Aimed at guiding the government in the formulation and implementation of laws and policies.

Purpose and Significance

1. Social and Economic Justice

  • Redistribution of Resources (Article 38):

    • Promotes policies to reduce inequalities and ensure a fair distribution of wealth and resources.
  • Promotion of Welfare (Article 39):

    • Advocates policies to ensure that citizens have adequate means of livelihood, adequate health, and educational facilities.

2. Political Justice

  • Fair Elections (Article 324):

    • Calls for free and fair elections to ensure political democracy.
  • Separation of Judiciary from Executive (Article 50):

    • Advocates the separation of the judiciary from the executive to maintain the independence of the judiciary.

3. Legal Justice

  • Equal Justice and Free Legal Aid (Article 39A):

    • Ensures that opportunities for securing justice are not denied due to economic or other disabilities.
  • Protection of Environment (Article 48-A):

    • Directs the State to protect the environment, forests, and wildlife.

4. Cultural and Educational Justice

  • Promotion of Educational Institutions (Article 45):

    • Encourages the state to provide early childhood care and education to children until they complete the age of six.
  • Promotion of Hindi Language (Article 351):

    • Mandates the spread of Hindi language to develop it as the official language of India.

Principles of DPSP

1. State as Welfare State

  • The state is to ensure the welfare of the people by securing and protecting, as effectively as it may, a social order in which justice, social, economic, and political, shall inform all the institutions of the national life.

2. Non-Justiciable

  • Unlike Fundamental Rights, DPSP are not legally enforceable in courts.
  • The government is expected to strive to implement these principles but cannot be compelled to do so.

3. Harmonious Construction

  • The government should strive to harmonize DPSP with Fundamental Rights for a balanced socio-economic development.

Criticism and Controversies

1. Non-Justiciability

  • Some argue that making DPSP legally enforceable would ensure their effective implementation.

2. Conflict with Fundamental Rights

  • There may be conflicts between DPSP and Fundamental Rights, raising questions of prioritization.