Other Heterodox Sects



Ajivikas :


  • Founded by Gosala Maskariputra or Makhali, who was at first a close friend and later a strong opponent of Mahavira; 
  • Believed in fate called ‘niyati’; 
  • Prospered during the pre-Maurya and Maurya times, but declined later.


Pakudha Katyayana: 


  • He preached that just as earth, water, air and light are indestructible elements, so are sorrow, happiness and life. 
  • Later Vaisesika School originated from his teachings.


Purana Kassapa: 


  • Regarded the soul as distinct from the body. 
  • Later Samkhya School of philosophy originated from his teachings.


Ajita Keshakambalin: 


  • Earliest known teacher of complete materialism; 

Later Lokayata or Charvaka School originated from this doctrine.




  • The word ‘bhakti’ along with the allied words is derived from the Sanskrit word ‘bhaj’, meaning ‘to adore’; bhagavat – the adorable one; bhagavata – the worshipper of the adorable one.
  • Bhaktimarga, different from ‘jnanamarga’ (path of knowledge) and ‘karmamarga’ (path of work), preached that a completely personal relationship between the god and his devotee was possible through devotion.


First Stage of Bhagavatism:


  • Founded by Krishna Vasudeva of the Kshatriya clan of the Satavatas or Vrisnis, a branch of the Yadava or Yadu tribe. 
  • Vasudeva and Devaki – his original parents; Nanda and Yasoda – foster parents; Kamsa – his uncle.


Second Stage:


  • Capture and absorption of Bhagavatism by Brahmanism during the Age of the Guptas. 


Bhagavad Gita


  • The most sacred book of the Bhagavatas, it is an interpolation in the Mahabharata. 
  • Narayaniya (12th book of the Mahabharata) and the Bhagavata Purana are the textbooks of the Brahmanised Bhagavatism. 
  • Identification of Krishna Vasudeva, called Narayana also, as the Vishnu. 
  • The concept of incarnations (avataras), developed in the 1st century AD, helps in this process of absorption.






  • The worship of Yaksas and Nagas and other folk-deities constituted the most important part of primitive religious beliefs. 
  • Several freestanding images of the folk-deities belonging to the centuries before and after the Christian era are found in different parts of the country. 
  • The folk-cults survived in the orthodox Brahmanical fold in the form of worship of Ganesa whose hybrid figure was an amalgam of the pot-bellied Yaksa and the elephantine Naga. 
  • The original importance of the folk-element is also apparent in the fact that the first place was assigned to Ganesa in the list of the five principal Puranic deities (Ganesadi Panchadevata: Ganesa, Vishnu, Siva, Sakti and Surya).


Vaishnavism Origin 


  • Vaishnavism, having its origins in the pre-Gupta period, began to capture and absorb Bhagavatism during the Gupta period. 
  • The process was completed by the late Gupta period, and in fact, the name mostly used to designate Bhagavatism from this period onwards was Vaishnavism, indicating the predominance of the later Vedic Vishnu element in it with emphasis on the doctrine of incarnations.
  • Vishnu is a conflation of many local divinities. These include: a Vedic god having some solar characteristics; a popular deified hero, Vasudeva, worshipped in western India; and the philosophical Absolute of the Upanishads (the Brahman).
  • The incarnatory theory greatly facilitated the assimilation of popular divinities into Vaishnavism. 
  • It developed during the Epic period and is referred to the Puranas.


Vaishnava Cults Bhagavatas


  • The Bhagavata is a theistic devotional cult, which originated several centuries before the Christian era. 
  • It is based mainly on the Bhagavad Gita, but later Bhagavata Purana and Vishnu Purana became its main texts. 
  • The supreme deity is Vasudeva Krishna (identified later with Vishnu).
  • The adherence of the Rajput kings further spread Bhagavatism to the whole of India. 
  • In southern India, in the Tamil land, largely the twelve Alvars spread the Bhagavata movement.




  • According to tradition, Sandilya first systematized the Pancharatra teachings in about 100 AD.


  • A cosmological basis was given to Vasudeva Krishna by identifying him and the members of his family with specific cosmic emanations (uyuhas): this was an important tenet of the early Pancharatras ‘uyuha’ or emanatory theory developed early in the Christian era.
  • People of Yadava-Satavata Vrisni origin worshiped all the deified heroes in the Mathura region and the teaching was carried to western India and the northern Deccan by migrating Yadava tribes.


Alvars or Vaishnava Saints


  • In south India, they preached one-should and loving adoration for Vishnu, and their songs in Tamil were collectively called Prabhandas. 
  • There were totally 12 Alvars, the most famous among them being Nammalvar, Andal and Tirumalisai Alvar.


Vaishnava Acharyas or Teachers


  • Ramanuja, one of the early great Acharyas, developed the doctrine of ‘Visishtadvaita’

(qualified non-dualism) based on some Upanishadic texts in opposition to Sankaracharya’s ‘Advaita’ or non-dualism (Sankara does not belong to either Vaishnavism or Saivism but to the ‘nirguna’ school). 

  • Three other Vaishnava Acharyas of the south were Madhavacharya, Nimbarka and Vallabhacharya. 
  • The first founded the ‘Dvaita’ (dualism), the second ‘Dvaitadvaita’ (dualistic nondualism) and the third ‘Suddhadvaita’ (pure nin-dualism) respectively.



Saivism Origin and Growth


  • Saivism, unlike Vaishnavism, had its origin in the very ancient past.  
  • The pre-Vedic religion (i.e. Indus religion) has as one of its important components the worship of Pasupati Mahadeva, a deity described as the first proto-Siva.  
  • In the Vedic religion, Rudra has considered as the Vedic counterpart of Pasupati Mahadeva.
  • The grammarians of the post-Vedic period give us an idea about the growth of Saivism as a religious movement. 
  • Panini, in his Ashtadhyayi, refers to a group of Siva-worshippers. 
  • Patanjali also describes a group of Siva-worshippers as ‘Siva Bhagavatas’ in his Mahabhashya.


Extreme Saiva Sects


  • Pasupatas founded by Lakulisa, it was the oldest extreme sect of Saivism. 
  • Though it originated in the centuries before the Christian era, it flourished in north India and Orissa between the 6th and 11th centuries AD. 
  • It was the only sect to link liberation with the attainment of supernatural powers.


Kapalikas and Kalamukhas: 


  • They were the offshoots of the Pasupata sect. 
  • Originating in the 6th century AD in the Deccan, they flourished in Karnataka between the 10th and 13th centuries AD.




  • They were the successors of the Kapalikas. 
  • Divided into two groups the ‘suddha’ (pure) and the ‘malin’ (dirty) – they led the life of wandering ascetics. 
  • Each guru was accompanied by a dog, as was Siva in his Bhairava form.




  • Also known as ‘kanphata Yogis’ because of their split or pierced ears and ear rings, they were founded by Gorakhnath in eastern Bengal. 
  • Unlike the other sects, these Yogis are allowed to marry. 
  • Their dead are buried in the posture of meditation and their tombs are called ‘samadh’.


Moderate Saiva Sects Kashmiri Saivism: 


  • In Kashmir, two moderate schools were founded in the 9th century AD. 
  • Vasugupta founded the ‘Pratyabhijna’ school, and his pupils – Kallata and Somananda – founded the ‘Spandasastra’ school. 
  • Abhinavagupta, who founded a new monistic system, called the ‘Trika’ (three-fold) in the 11th century AD, systematized all these teachings.




  • It flourished at the same time in central India and a little later in some parts of the Deccan. 
  • Many of the Mattamayura Acharyas were preceptors of the Kalachuri-Chedi kings.


Nayanars or Saiva Saints


  • Saivism in south India flourished in the beginning through the activities of Saiva saints, called the Nayanars. 
  • Their emotional poetry in Tamil was called Tevaram (also known as ‘Dravida Veda’). 
  • There were totally 63 Nayanars, the most important among them being Tirujnana Sambandhar and Tirunavukkarasu.


Saiva Acharyas


    A large number of Saiva intellectuals of south India were associated with several forms of Saiva movements like Agamanta, Suddhasaiva and Virasaiva.


The Agamantas based their tenets mainly on the 28 ‘agamas’ which explain the various aspects of Siva. 

  • Aghora Sivacharya was one of their ablest exponents. 
  • Also known as ‘Tamil Saivism’, it was systematized by Meykantar in his work Sivajnanabodham (13th century).


The Suddhasaivas upheld Ramanuja’s teachings, but Srikanta Sivacharya was their great expounder. 

  • Also known as ‘Sivadvaita’, it has some similarities with Tamil as well as Kashmiri Saivism.

Basava (a minister of Chalukya king Bijjala Raya of the 12th century AD) led the Virasaivas or Lingayats. 

  • This is both a social and religious reform movement. 
  • Though they were originally opposed to caste discrimination and idol worship, later they became a separate caste in Karnataka and developed their own priests called ‘jangamas’. 
  • Their dead are buried in a sitting position facing north.




  • In the pre-Vedic times, the mother aspect was venerated; e.g. Worship of the mother goddess in the Indus civilization.
  • In the Vedic period, gods undoubtedly played a more important part in contemporary mythology.
  • However, exclusive worshippers of the Devi are not to found until a comparatively late period.
  • Some Gurjara–Pratihara kings of the early medieval period were also worshippers of the Sakti.
  • Most of the extant works connected with the Tantric form of Sakti worship were composed in later times.


Six Orthodox Philosophies


  • Samkhya: 

This dualistic school recognizing the two eternal realities of ‘purusha’ (spirit) and ‘prakriti’ (nature) is attributed to sage Kapila.


  • Yoga: 

Founded by Patanjali, it has many similarities to Samkhya. According to the Svetasvatara Upanishad, ‘Samkhya is knowledge, Yoga is practice.’


  • Vaisesika:   

Attributed to Kanada, it promulgates an atomistic account of the universe.


  • Nyaya:  

This is a system of logical realism founded by Gotama or Gautama, also known as Aksapada.


  • Vedanta:

Attributed to Badarayana, it is also known as ‘Uttaramimamsa’.  Its main schools are Advaita, Visishtadvaita and Dvaita.


  • Mimamsa:   

Founded by Jaimini, it is also known as ‘Purvamimamsa’ in order to distinguish it from the more complex Vedanta.

Brahmanical Literature Epics The Ramayana

  • Valmiki was its author. According to tradition, the Ramayana was composed about 500 BC.
  • Out of its seven books, the first and last are the latest. 
  • The former states that Rama is an incarnation of Vishnu, an indication of its later composition, but many of the stories are very old and include some, which probably originated in the kingdoms of Magandha and Kosala.


The Mahabharata

  • Known originally as Jaya Samhita, the Mahabharata consists of eighteen books or sections, including the Harivamsa (the Genealogy of Hari or Vishnu) and the Bhagavad Gita (Song of the Lord). 
  • Traditionally it is attributed to Krishna Dvaipayana, popularly known as Vyasa.
  • It was composed over many centuries and was almost finalished by the third or second century BC. 
  • The great battle described in the Mahabharata may have a historical basis in the memory of a battle in north India in the ninth century BC.



Traditionally the Puranas expound five subjects:

  1. The certain of the world;
  2. Its destruction and recreation; 
  3. Genealogies of gods and patriarchs; 
  4. Reigns of the Manus of various world periods (manvantaras); and  (v) The history of the Solar and Lunar royal dynasties.


Period and Lists:

  • None of the eighteen main Puranas is earlier than the Gupta period, although much of the legendary material is older.
  • The names of the eighteen Puranas are : 

Vishnu, Agni, Bhavishya, Bhagavata, Naradiya, Garuda, Padma, Varaha, Matsya, Kurma, Linga, Siva, Skanda, Brahma, Brahmananda, Brahmavaivarta, Markandeya and Vamana.          In some lists, the Vayu is substituted for the Agni Purana, in other for the Siva Purana.

  • The Vayu Purana is perhaps the oldest; some others may be as late as the fifteenth or sixteenth century, but all appear to have undergone much reediting.


Dharmasastras or Smritis Contents:

  • The sources of ‘dharma’; 
  • The duties of the four ‘varnas’ and ‘asramas’; 
  • Various ‘samskaras’ of man; 
  • The avocations of the four ‘varnas’ in life;
  • The duties and responsibilities of the king, rules for taxation, ownership, guardianship, witnesses, money-lending, payment of debts and deposits, punishments for the various crimes, partition, inheritance, and different kinds of sons; Impurities of birth, death, and other causes; Different kinds of ‘Sraddhas’, rules about food, duties of women and their property, ‘niyoga’ (levirate) and its conditions; Sins and their expiations, and penances and their conditions.
  • They deal with these topics in an analytical and systematised from under three main heads: ‘achara’ (rites), ‘vyavahara’ (dealings), and ‘prayaschitta’ (expiation).


Main Smritis:

Manu Smriti

  • The Manu Smriti is the most ancient and authoritative among them. 
  • It has ‘vyavahara’, and ‘prayaschitta’. 
  • It has served as a model to all later Smritis. 
  • It has many masterly commentaries like those of Medhatithi, Govindaraja, and Kulluka Bhatta. 
  • The extant work is a version compiled by Bhrigu, one of the disciples of Manu.


Yajnavalkya Smriti

  • The next in importance is the Yajnavalkya Smriti, which has three ‘kandas’ (sections) on ‘achara’, ‘vyavahara’, and ‘prayaschitta’. 
  • It agrees with the Manu Smriti on many points, but disagrees in important topics like ‘niyoga’, inheritance, and gambling. 
  • It has a few valuable commentaries like Balakrida, Apararka, and Mitaksara, of which Mitaksara is the best and most critical and authoritative.


Parasara Smriti

  • The Parasara Smriti is noted for its advanced views and it is considered most suited for the ‘kaliyuga’. 
  • It deals with ‘achara’ and ‘prayaschitta’ only. 
  • It mentions the ‘apaddharma’ of the four castes: agriculture, trade and commerce for the Brahmins, etc. 
  • Its commentary by Madhavacharya is very popular and authoritative and explains ‘vyavahara’ under ‘raja-dharma’.


Narada Smriti

  • The Narada Smriti occurs in two recensions and deals with ‘vyavahara’ only. 
  • It closely follows Manu, but introduces a few innovations in the eighteen titles of law and permits ‘niyoga’, remarriage of women, and gambling under certain conditions.


Brihaspati Smriti

  • The Brihaspati Smriti has seven sections dealing with ‘vyavahara’, ‘achara’ and ‘prayaschitta’. 
  • It closely follows the Manu Smriti and is known as a ‘parisista’ (supplement) to the latter.


Katyayana Smriti

  • The Katyayana Smriti follows closely the works of Manu, Brihaspati and Narada. 
  • It specially deals with ‘stridhana’ (a woman’s personal property).



    Among others, mention may be made of the Smritis of Angiras, Daksa, Pitamaha, Prajapati, Marici, Yama, Visvamitra, Vyasa, Sangrahakara, and Samvarta.


Hindu Cosmology

  • According to Hindu cosmology, a beginning less series of worlds pass through cycles within cycles forever. 
  • One ‘day of Brahma’, called ‘kalpa’, consists of 4,320 million earthly years; his ‘night’ is of equal length; his ‘year’ contains 360 such days and nights; and his lifetime is 100 divine years.
  • Each ‘kalpa’ is divided into 14 secondary cycles (manvantaras). 
  • During these periods, another world comes into being and a new Manu appears as the progenitor of the human race. 
  • At present, we are in the seventh ‘manvantara’ whose Manu is Vaivasvata.
  • Each ‘manvantara’ comprises 71 aeons called ‘mahayugas’, each divided into four ages (yugas), called ‘krita’, ‘treta’, ‘dwapara’ and ‘kali’, and consisting of 4800, 3000, 2400 and 1200 ‘years of the gods’ respectively (a ‘year of the gods’ consists of 360 human years). 
  • The above ages are sometimes named after metals – gold, silver, copper and iron respectively.
  • We are now in the ‘kali’ age when goodness, kindness, virtue, justice, strength, longevity and happiness are at their lowest ebb. 
  • The present age commenced in 3102 BC, this is also the traditional date of Mahabharata war.





TITLES OF THE KINGS KINGS                                            TITLES

  • Harsha           Rajputra Siladitya
  • Mahendravarman I (Pallavas)                  Vichitra Chitta
  • Krishnadevaraya (Vijayanagara Empire)      Andhra Bhoja, Andhra Pltamah, Yavana 


                                    Raja, Sthapanacharya

 Rajaraja (Cholas)

                 Mumadi Chola, Rajakesri, Arumoli,

Jayakonda Martanda Chola, Numadi Chola

 Rajendra I (Cholas)

Gangaikonda, Mudikonda, Pandita Chola,                     Uttam Chola, Kadarangonda, Nigarilli Chola



  • Coins were introduced in India is 500 BC
  • These early coins were known as Puch-marked coins bearing only a variety of symbols
  • Indo-Greeks were first to introduce gold coins, they also intiated the practice of issuing   bilingual coins they were also first to issue coins which could be attributed to particular kings with certainty
  • Portrait-coinaage was introduced by Indo-Greeks
  • Indo-Greeks were the first to issue gold coins
  • Kadphises I (Kushana) issued copper coins which depicted Herkles (Krishna)
  • Kadaphises II wim (Kushana) issued gold coins which bore the images of Shiva and Nqandi
  • Satvahanas issued coins in four metals; silver, copper, potin, and lead (the last one being predominant)
  • The Guptas issued the largest number of gold coins
  • Gold coins of Md. Ghauri bore the image of goddess kali/Lakshmi on obverse and the name of the ruler in Nagari script on reverse
  • Md. Bin Tughlaq introduced token currency of brass and copper on the model of Chinese currency CHAO (in paper and silk)
  • Akbar’s gold mohur bare the figures of Sita and Ram
  • The coins of Harihara I and Bukka I bore the image of Hunuman
  • The coins of Krishnadevaraya bore the images of Venkatesh and Balakrishana




  • Nishka: Gold ornaments used as medium of exchange during Vedic age
  • Karspana: Early coin type, the most popular one made of gold, silver, copper and lead
  • Pana: Silver coin of early period weighing 57.8 grain. Popular during the Maurvas
  • Kakini: Copper coin weighing 2.25 grain. Popular during the Maurya period
  • Rupaka: Silver coin of the Guptas weighing 32 to 36 grain
  • Jittal: Copper coin of sultanate period
  • Tanka: Standard silver coin of Sultanate period weighing 175 grains and equivalent to 64 jittal. Introduced by IItutmish
  • Rupaya: Silver coin weight 170 grain introduced by Shershah and continued by the Mughals
  • Varaha: Gold coin of Vijaynangara rulers weighed 52 grain, and was called pagoda by foreigners particularly Portuguese. Also known as Hun and Panam
  • Dam: Chief copper coin weighing 323 grain introduced by Shershah and continued by Mughals. 40 Dams was equal to 1 rupee



  • Tamralipti :         Also known as Tamluk and Gang of Periplus. The most famous port during Mauryan and post-Mauryan period on eastern coast
  • Arikamedu :        Pouduca of periplus. Traces of Roman settlement found here 
  • Korkai :              Also known as Colchoi
  • Masulipatnam :   Masalia of Periplus
  • Negapatnam :     Also known as Nikam


Western Coast

 Barygaza                    :

Also known as Broach and Bhrigukachha

 Barbaricum                 :

Near the mouth of the Indus

 Sopara                       :

Also known as Soparaka

 Kalyan                        :

Also known as Kalliena

 Quilon                        :            Most important in medieval times

 Cambay                      :

Known as Khambayat in Arabian Sources, known as 


Stambhatirtha in Sanskrit literature

 Goa                            :



Enterport of horse trade during medieval times

 Sreni

-                        General term for guilds

 Sartha

-                        Mobile guilds

 Sarthavaha

-                        Head of mobile guilds

 Jyestha



-                        Head of a guild

 Kshauma

-                        Silk cloth

 Kalinga

-                         Fine silk cloth (Kalinga)

 Sataka

-                        Cotton cloth (Mathura)

 Chinamsuka

-                        Chinese silk

 Monakhe

-                        Fine cotton cloth

 Dukula

-                           Cotton cloth (Vanga and Pundra)

 Kauseya

-                        Silk (china)



  • Vidisa   -        Ivory
  • Vanga   -        Sword industry, tin, silk
  • Anga    -        Sword industry
  • Mathura          -        Textile (cotton)
  • Varanasi         -        Textile (silk)
  • Ujjain   -        Beads
  • Sanchi -        Ivory
  • Kalinga -        Silk
  • Kanchi -        Textile
  • Madurai          -        Silk
  • Kausambi        -        Silk
  • Pehoa   -        Horse trade




              Manigraman                  -         An important guild in Kerala


Nanadeshi                     -

Guild of trade having membership from different regions  and castes

 Ghatiyantra                   -

Irrigation devices (Ref. From Banabhattta)

 Shrotriyas                     -

Learned Brahmins who had the knowledge of the Vedas

 Devdana                       -

Land grants to religious establishments (temple etc)

 Hinasippas                    -

Low profession

 Annada                         -

Grain-giver, refers to Sudras

 Kutumbin                      -

Important member of village, having landed property

 Vidusaka                       -

The court jester in the sanskrit drama, figure of fun, invariably a Brahman

 Varnasrama dharma       -

A general norm of conduct appropriate to each class and to each stage in the life of the individual

 Dvija                             -

Literally means “TWINCE-BORN”. Refered to the three upper classes vig. BRAHMANS, KSHATRIYAS and VAISYAS who were supposed to be born twice, once at their natural birth and again at their initiation when they were invested with the sacred thread and received into the Aryan society

 Apad Dharma                 -

Lieterally means “Duty when in stress”. Implies what a man may legitimateiy do when he cannot earn a living by the normal deeds performed by his class

 Ghatikas                        -

South Indian education Institutions

 Kulinism                        -

Hypergamous system of marriage based on

 Brahmadeya                   -

Land grant/ a single plot of land or whole of Village to an individual Brahmin or a group of Brahmins

 Nagaraka                       -

Urban people of refined culture during the Gupta Age

 Stridhana                       -

Property in the form of jewelers etc. over which the right of the women was recognised. After the women’s death it passed over to her daughter

 Niyoga                           -



The practice of allowing a window to cohabit with her husband’s younger brother until the birth of a male child. Prohibited by Dharmashastra from Gupta period onwards

 Sulka                -

Customs and tolls

 Sadbhaga          -

Land revenue (Ref Kautilya)

 Bhaga               -

Royal share of produce 1/6 of the total, first reference in Arthasastra

 Bhoga               -

Perodical supplies of fruit, flowers, firewood etc. to the king (in the nature of kings rights and privileges)

 Bali                   -

  1. A type of land revenue


  • Petty cess besides kings normal share-Arthasastra


  • Additional and oppressive tax-Ref, Jatakas


d) Emergency tax from which Chief Ministers were exempted – Ref Millind Panho

 Bhaga Bhoga/Bhogabhaga -

Land revenue and supplies of first flower etc to the king

 Kara                                -

  • a tax in addition to grain share


  1. Oppressive in nature
  2. Find mention in law books, arthasastra and Gupta epigraphs


  • Periodical


  • Gift of commodities (dravyadanam)-Ref Medatithi
  1. Fixed gold payment (Bhuminiyatam deyan hiranyam)-

Ref Sarvajnanarayana

  1. Contribution in the forms of gras/wood etc


    1. Charges upon all movable and immovable articles-

Ref.Asthasastra Annual tax paid during Bhadrapada and


j) Contribution from villagers and townsmen either monthly or in the month of Bhadrapada and Pausa

(Grama Puravasi Bhyah Pratinasam-Kulluka)

    • Hiranya           a) Tax in cash upon some special types of cash crops 
    1. 1/10 of the total-Ref. Arthasastra and Mahabharata
    2. 1/50 of the total – Ref. Manu and Vishnu
    3. Makes a king wealthy-Ref.Patanjali
    4. Regular in post-mauryan times
    5. Mentioned in Gupta epigraphs 
    6. Payement in gold/tax on the capital generated annually-Ref. Law books
    • Uparika           a) Came into vogue during the Guptas
    1. A tax on temporary tenants
    • Udranga          a) First mentioned in Gupta epigraphs
    1. A tax on permanent tenants
    2. Sometimes a tax for maintenance of police 
    3. Sometimes a tax on fish and other water products



  • Vishwarup wrote a commentary known as Balasera on Yavjnavalkya’s Smriti.
  • Meghatithi wrote a commentary on Manusmriti.
  • Bhattaswami wrote a commentary known as Pratipada Panchika on Kautilya’s Arthashastra. It was completed by Vishnugupta.
  • Vijananeshwar wrote a commentary known as Mitakshara (on civil law) on Yajnavalkya’s law book.




 Wives, sons and slaves have no right to property  

- Manu

 Sudras and women have right to study the Puranas 

- Apasthamba

 Slaves can be beaten only on back (not on head)  

- Manu

 Brahmins can lena to wicked people at low interests 

- Manu

 Women has a right to inheritance                          

- Yajnavalkya

  • Fallen Kshatriya (an appellation given to foreign ruling groups)     - Manu
  • A youth can win a girl of his choice by courtship     - Vatsayana
  • Indians are of hasty and irresolute temoerament, Indians are of pure moral principles, Indians do not take anything wrongfully, Indians possess qualities of courage and love of learning, Indians yield more than fairness requires 

                                                                                                                    - Hieun Tsang

               Sudras as agriculturists                                      - Heiun Tsang and Alberuni

              There was no provision of death sentence                                          - Fahiean

               Wives and slaves have no right to property                                         - Manu

               Indians had no sense of history-writing                                              - Alberuni

              First reference of Sati                                       - Eran (M.P), 510 A D

              There was no slavery in India                                                            - Megasthenes


There was seven castes in India




                               - Megasthenes






 Udayaraja


Mahmud Begarha of Gujarat

 Hemchandra


Kumarpala chalukyas Ahilwad

 Nagarjuna



 Amarsimha


Chandragupta Vikmaditya

 Ravikirti


Pulkesin (Chalukyas of Badami)

 Vakapatiraja


Yasovarman of Kanauj 720 AD

 Bhavabhuti


Yasovarman of Kanauj

 Harisena


Samudra Gupta

 Rajshekhara


Mahendrapal and Mahipal(Gujrjara Pratihara)

 Somdeva


Prithviraj III

 Chandrabaradai


Prithiviraj Chauhan

 Banabhatta



 Dandin


Narasimhavarman (Pallava)

 Bharavi


Simha Vishnu (Pallava)

 Gunadhyaya


Hala (Satvahana)

 Mahaviracharya


Amoghvarsha (Rashtrakuta)

 Jinsena



 Sakityana



 Jaidev


Lakshman VI (Chalukya of Kalyani)

 Bihana


Vikrmaditya VI (Chalukya of Kalyani)

 Vijayaneshwar


Vikramaditya VI

 Lakshmidhara


Govindchandra (Gadhavalas of Kanauj)

 Sri Harsha


Jai Chand (Kanuaj)

 Kalhan


Harsha of Kashmir

 Firdausi


Mahmud Gazni

 Amir Khusro





Alauddin kalji



          Jodhpur                                 -

Rao Jodha of Marwar

          Jaunpur                                 -

Firoz Tughlaq (on the site of

Jamanpur) Named after Jauna Khan (Md. Tughlaq)

  • Hyderabad      -        Md.Qulti 1590, a new capital of Qutub

Shahi kingdom of Golcunda

  • Ahmedabad     -        Ahmed Shah of Gujarat, on the site of the Old town Asawal

               Mustaphabad                         -                        Mahmud Begarha

               Muhammadabad                     -                        Mahmud Begarha

               Delhi / Dhilika                        -                        Tomaras, middle of 11th cent

              Firojabad / Kotla Firoj Shah      -                        Firoz Shah Tughlaq

Shahjehanabad          -        Shahjehan Fatehpur sikri     -        Akbar




Narsimhavarman I

 Bikaner


Bika (son of Jodha)

 Fatehabad


Firoz Shah Tughlaq

 Hissar


Firoz Shah Tughlaq

 Firozpur


Firoz Shah Tughlaq

 Patliputra



 Jaipur


Raja Swai Jai Singh

 Amritsar


Guru Ramdas (3rd Guru)

 Srinagar



 Gangaikondachola Puram


Rajendra of Chola dynasty

 Ajmer


Ajayraja (Chauhans)

 Agra


Sikandar Lodi

 Husbangabad


Husbang Shah

 Nauraspur


Ibrahim Adii Shah II

 Vijayanagara


Harihara I and Bukka I

 Calcutta


Job Charnok

 Rai Pithora


Prithviraj Chauhan

 Tughlaqabad


Ghiasuddin Tughiaq

 Adilabad


Md. Bin Tughlaq

 Jahapanah


Md. Bin Tughlaq

 Dinapanah



 Khizrabad


Khizr Khan

 Salimgarh


Islam Shah

 Daulatabad


Md. Bin Tughlaq

 Allahabad



 Zafarbad


Zafar Khan

 Siri




Aluddin Khalji






          Sanchi Stupa                          -


           Bharhut Stupa                        -


          Amravati Stupa                       -


          Peshwar Stupa                        -


          Saranath Stupa                       -


          Chaitya of Karle                      -


          Chaitya of Bhaja                      -


           Ajanta Painting                        -


 Shore temple (Mahabalipuram) -

Narasimha ll (Pallava)

 Kailashnath temple (Kanchipuram)-

Narasimha ll (Pallava)

 Vaikuntha Permual Temple (Kanchipuram)-

Nandian Verman ll

 Virupaksha Temple (Pattadkal) -

Chalukyas of Badami

 Dasavatara Temple (Deogarh) -


Maqhabodhi Temple (Bodhgaya)-


               Kailashnath Temple (Ellora)      -

Krishna l (Rashtrakhuta)

               Elephanta Caves                     -


              Brihadesvara Temple               -

Rajaraja l (chola)

Lingraj Temple (Bhubaneshwar) -

The Eastern Gangas

               Jagannath Temple (Puri)          -

Anant Varma (Eastern Ganga)

              Sun Temple (Konark)               -                        Narasimha l

  • Kendriya Mahadev Temple     -        Chandellas of Bundelkhand
  • Sun Temple (Modhera)         -        Solanki of Gujarat
  • Adinath (Vimla Vasahi Temple) Dilwara -              Vimala, Minister of Bhima l
  • Neminath Lima Varahi Temple (Dilwara) -      Vastupala and Tejpala, Ministers of Bhima ll
  • Hoyasaleswara Temple         -        Hoyasalas (Helebid/Dwarsamudra)
  • Sun Temple (Martand)          -        Lalitaditya (Karkota dynasty of


  • Kritistambha (Chittor) -        Rana Kumbha
  • Hazara Temple          -        Krishnadevaraya
  • Minakshi Temple (Maduari)    -        Tirumala Nayak
  • Gol Minar (Hyderabad)          -        Md. Adil Shah
  • Char Minar (Hyderbad)         -        Md. Quli Qutb Shah
  • Jama Masjid (Ahmedabad)    -        Ahmed Shah l
  • Adina Masjid (Pandua)          -        Sikandar Shah
  • Jamma Masjid (Mandu)         -        Mahmud Khaliji
  • Qila-i-Kuhana Masjid (with Purana Qila Delhi) -       Sher Shah      
  • Atala Masjid (Jaunpur) - Ibrahim Shah Sharqi  Jami Mosque (Jaunpur) - Hussain Shah Sharqi
  • Dakhili Darwaja (Gaur)         -        Barbak Shah
  • Ekalakhi (Pandia)       -        Jalauddin Md.Shah
  • Jami Mosque (Mandu) -        Started by Hushang Shah and

completed By Mahmud l

  • Ashrafi Mahal (Gold Mohur Palace, Mandu -           Mahmud l
  • Tin Darwaja (Ahmedabad)     -        Ahmed Shah
  • Vithalswami Temple    -        Krishnadeva Raya
  • Qadm Rasul (Gaur)     -        Nusrat Shah
  • Bara Sona Masjid (Gaur)       -        Nusrat Shah
  • Lal Darwaja (Jaunpur)          -        Raj Bibi / Consort of Mahmud Sharqi
  • Jama Masjid (Ahmedabad)    -        Ahmed Shah
  • Hindola Mahal (Mandu)          -        Hushang Shah
  • Kumbhalgarh   -        Raja Kumbha Karan
  • Vijaya Stambha (Chittor)       -        Rana Kumbha Karan
  • Statute of Gomesteswara/Bahubali (Sravanbelgola)- Chamundaraya
  • Nalanda University      -        Kumargupta (Guptas)
  • Vikramshila University           -        Dhampala (Palas)





  • A greek ambassador sent by Selucas to the Court Chandragupta Maurya Wrote the book Indika
  • The book provides a graphic picture of the socio-economic conditions of India during the Mauryan Period 
  • It gives valuable information on municipal administration as well



A Buddhist monk

Visited India during the reign of Chandragupta ll



  • A famous Chinese Buddhist monk
  • Visited India during the reign of Harsha
  • Popularly known as the “Prince of Pitgrims”
  • Studied at Nalanda University
  • His work is known as Gazetteer




  • A Chinese traveler
  • Visited India in connection with Buddhism and its learning
  • Wrote the book Biographies of Eninent Monks




  • An Arab traveler
  • Wrote the book “Murujul Zabab”
  • He has written extensively on comtemporary India




  • A venetian traveler
  • Popularly called the “Prince of Medieval Travellers”
  • Wrote a book ‘The Book of Ser Marco-Polo’
  • The book gives an invaluable account on the economic history of India
  • Visited South India in 1292-93 on his way from China to Persia and collected Invaluable amount of information of some parts of South India



  • An Arab and a native of Morocco
  • Reached India during the reign of Muhammad bin Tughluq
  • Was appointed as Qazi of Delhi during his reign
  • While returning to Morocco in 1353, IBN BATUTA compiled his travel experience in the book called ‘Rehla’
  • It gives a valuable information on the reign of Muhammad-bin Tughlaq and the geographical, economic and social conditions of India
  • Gives reference to Sadi (group of 1000 villages) and Hazar (group of 1000 villages)  Gives reference to fruit growing activities (mango was the prized fruit)



  • An Italian and the earliest visitor to Vijayanagar Empire
  • Reaches India during the region of Devaray l




 A Persian, sent by Shah Rukh as ambassador to the Zamorin of Calicut  He also visited Vijaynagar during the reign of Deviraya ll



  • A Russian horse merchant, spent some years in the deccan and travelled in the Bahmani kingdom
  • Resided in Bidar for a long time

He gave a detailed observation of the Court, the army and conditions of the people under Bahamani rule



  • Was a Portuguese official in India
  • His work gives information on the Vijayanagara empire




  • A soldier and traveler who was knighted by the portuguese
  • He travelled in India between 1532 and 1508
  • Wrote a book ‘The ltinerary of Ludovico Di Varthema’ which provides a detailed account of Goa and Calicut and other ports on the West Coast



  • A great portugues traveller who visited Vijayanagar during the reign of Krishnadeva Raya
  • Paes has written a descriptive glory of the Vijaynagar empire in his book “The Narrative of Domingo Paes”
  • He found the city of Vijaynagar as iarge as Rome



  • A Portuguese horse dealer who spent three years in the empire of Vijaynagar
  • He wrote a book ‘The Chronicle of Fernao Nuniz’
  • He also translated, compiled and edited the account of, Paes and Nuniz in his famous work “A Forgotten Empire”



  • First English merchant to reach Fatehpur Sikri and Agra
  • Visited a number of places in various parts of India and klprovides valuable information on the trade and urban centres of the late sixteenth century



 A Portuguese who visited the empire of Vjaynagar after the battle of Talikota  He made special comments on the runined splendor of the imperial city



  • An English ambassador of the British king James l to the court of Jehangir
  • He had come to India to secure the trading rights for the English in India  He has written valuable information on the reign of jehangir



  • Leader of the Second English Embassy to the court of Jehangir
  • He wrote a book “A voyage to East Indies”
  • The book provides a very useful information about the court business



  • An Italian traveler to the Mughal empire in the reign of Shah Sahan
  • He has given a valuable formation on the conditions of the common people in Mughal India





  • A Frenchman, made six voyages to India between 1638 and 1663
  • Wrote a book entitled ‘Travel in India’
  • He has written about the reigns of Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb
  • He has given a detailed description of the diamond trade and mines



  • Reached India in 1656 from Venice
  • Worked as an artilleryman in the army of Dara Shukoh
  • After  Dara’s execution he worked as a quack doctor, an artillery captain, an ambassador etc
  • Died at Madras
  • Wrote Storio Do Mogor, written in a mixture of Italian, French and Portuguese



  • Reached India in 1656 from France
  • He was a physician and philosopher
  • Lived under the patronage of Danishmand Khan, one of Aurangzeb’s leading nobles



DYNASTY                          CAPITAL                    YEAR                          FOUNDER


Haranyaka……………………….  Rajgriha………………        542 BC………………………Bimbisar

Nandas…………………………      Patliputra……………        362 BC………………………Mahapadma Nand  

Mauryas……………………………  Patliutra………………        321 BC………………………Chandragupta Maurya             

Pushyabhutis……………….     Thaneseshvar………        600 AD……………   Naravardhana/Prabha-                                         karvardhana 

Rashtrakutas………………       Manyakheta………….       757 AD………….      Dantidurga/Dantivarman

Pallavas……………….             Kanchipuram………         560 AD……….            Simhavishnu

Early/Western Chalukyas… Vatapi/Badami               543 AD………             Pulakesin l

Eastern Chalukyas……        Vengi……………                630 AD………             Vishnu Vardhana

Later/Western Chalukyas… Kalyani…………                973 AD………             Tailapa/Tail all

Cholas………………                Thanjavur/Tanjore………  850 AD………             Vijayala 

Palas……………….                 Mudyagiri/Monghyr……….753 AD…………           Gopala

Senas………………                 Vijayaputra…………        1118 AD…………     Vijayasena/Samantasena

Chandellas……………………      Kharjuravahaka…………… 916 AD…………………    Nannuka

Chauhans…………………….      Ajmer/Sakambhari…………973 AD…………………    Vigraharaja ii 

Sharqis……………………….       Jaunpur…………………………1394 AD………Malik Sarwar, Sultan-Us-sharq

Vijayanagara…………………    Hampi/Vijayanagara…… 1336 AD……………………  Harihara & Bukka

Bahamanis…………………….    Gulbarga/Bidar…………… 1347 AD………Alauddin Hasan, Bahman Shah

Adil Shahi…………………….     Bijapur      ……………………1490 AD…………………..  Yusuf Adil Shah

Qutub Shahi………………..     Golcunda……………………….1518 AD…………………..  Sultan Quil Barid Shahi………………….     Bidar…          ……………………1529 AD…………………..   Ali Barid

Imad Shahi………………….     Berar…      ……………………1490 AD……………………   Fathullah Khan

Pandayas…………………….      Madurai…………………………1216 AD……… Jatavarman, Kulash-E-khara

Hoyasalas………………….       Halebid/Dwarsamudra… 1306 AD…………………..   Ballala l

Satvahanas………………        Paithan/Pratisthana……….   50 BC ……………………..Simuka

Loharas……………………         Kashmir………………………… 1003 AD……………………  Samgramaraja

Ishakavakus…………….        Nagarjunkonda (Circa)….  250 AD…………..         Chamtamula l







         AUTHORS                                                                      BOOKS


  • Asvaghosha (100 AD)                     Buddhaclarita
  • Bharavi (600 AD)                           Kirtarjuniya
  • Vakpatiraja                         Gaudvaho (Prakrit)
  • Hala (100 AD) as Salvahana Ki                           Saptasataka/Gathasapta-sati (Prakrit)
  • Bhasa                       Swapana Vasudutta
  • Sudraks (500-600 AD)                    Mrichhkatka (Little Play Cart)
  • Harshavardhana                             Ratnavali
  • Harshavardhana                             Nagananda
  • Harshavardhana                             Priyadarshika
  • Visakhaputta                        Mudra Rakshasa
  • Banabhatta (700 AD)                     Kadambari
  • Banabhatta (700 AD)                     Harsha Charita
  • Gunadhya (200 AD)                        Brihat Katha
  • Chanderbardai                     Prithvirajraso
  • Chanderbardai                     Prithvirajavijaya
  • Charak (contemporary of Kanishka)                 Charak Samhita (First book on medicine)
  • Surasuta (400 AD)                                      Susruta Samhita (First book on Surgery)
  • Hemachandra                     Parisistparvan
  • Merutunga (1400 AD)                     Prabhandha Chintamani
  • Rajasekhara                        Prabandhokosa
  • Vijaneswara                        Mitakshara (on law of inheritance)
  • Kalidasa                              Raghuvamsa
  • Kalidasa                              Kumarasambhva
  • Kalidasa                              Abhijinanashakutalam
  • Kalidasa                              Meghaduta
  • Kalidasa                              Ritusamhara
  • Kalidasa                              Malvika-Agnimitra
  • Panini                                    Astyadhyayi (First on Sanskrit grammer)
  • Patanjali (200 BC)                                           Mahabhasya (on Sanskrit grammer)
  • Amarsimha (During the reign of Chandragupta ll)  Amarkosa (lexicography)
  • Jayadeva (1200 AD)                       Gita Govinda
  • Mahendravarman (Palava King)                            Mattavilasa Prahasana (A burlesque)

 Narayena                                 


 Vishnusharma                           


 Megasthenes                             


 Ram Das, Maharastra Dharma 


 Pliny                                        

Natural History

 Ptolemy                                   


 Anonymous Greek Sailor             

Periplus of the Erthrean Sea

  • Collection of writings of Nayanars & Alvar considered          Tirulurais as 5th Veda
  • Aryabhatta                          Arabhatiyam
  • Aryabhatta                          Suryasidhanta
  • Naychandra Suri                            Hamirkavya
  • Vakaptiraja                  Gaudavano (Prakrit ex-ploits of Yasovarman of Kannai)
  • Jimutavahana                     Dayabhaga
  • Fahien                     Fo-kwo-ki
  • Huen Tsang                         Si-Yu-Ki
  • Udyaraja                      Rajavinoda (Biography of Mahmud Begarha of Gujarat)

 Kalhana


 Somadeva

Kathasaritsagar (Based on Gundhaya’s brihat-katha)

 Bhaskracharya


                                    Lilwati (Mathematics)