Modern Indian History

INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT-TOWARDS FREEDOM (1939-1947)

 

    • On September 3, 1939 the Second World War broke out and the same day the Viceroy  Linlithgow, without consulting the Indian people, declared India to be a belligerent and at war with Germany.
    • The Congress working committee, which met on September 8-15, 1939 stressed that the Indian people must decide the issue of war and peace for India.
    • When the British Government did not respond favorably, the Congress High Command directed the Congress Ministries in the Provinces to resign they complied with the directive in October and November 1939.
    • After the resignation of the Congress Ministries, the annual session of the Congress was held at Ramgarh (Bihar) in March 1940, where the Congress offered to cooperate with the British Government if a provisional National Government was set up at the center.
    • In response, the Viceroy Lord Linlithgow offered a set of proposals to the Congress for securing its cooperation during the War, which are popularly known as the “August offer”.
    • The Congress rejected the “August offer”. Jawaharlal Nehru said that the whole idea of Dominion status, on which the offer was based “as dead as a doornail”.
    • Disillusioned with the August offer, the Congress decided to launch Individual Satyagraha. 
      • It was launched on October 17, 1940
      • The first Satyagrahis was Vinoba Bhave
      • Mahatma Gandhi suspended it on December 17, 1940
      • On January 5, 1941 the campaign was started again
    • The British Government decided to send Sir Stafford Cripps a member of the British Cabinet to India, to find out a solution in consultation with the Indian leaders; Sir Stafford Cripps spent three weeks in India (March April 1942)
    • The Congress Working Committee, which met at Wardha on July 14, 1942, passed a long resolution, generally called the “Quit India” resolution.
    • The All India Congress Committee, which met in Bombay on August7, 1942 ratified the Wardha Resolution
    • It sanctioned the non-violent mass struggle under the leadership of Gandhi
    • On June 14, 1945, Wavell broadcast a plan popularly known as the Wavell Plan
      • The essence of the plan was the formation of a new Executive Council at the

Centre, in which all but the Viceroy and the Commander-in-Chief would be Indians

      • To consider these proposals and to Progress towards the formation of the proposed Executive Council, a Conference of 21 Indian political leaders was invited to the summer capital of Shimla in June 1945.
      • The leaders included Maulana Abul kalam Azad, then the President of the Congress M.A. Jinnah the leader of the Muslim League etc.

The first step taken by the Attlee Government was to hold general elections in India.

    • In the election results announced in December 1945, the Congress made its presence felt in the Central Legislative Assembly as also the Provincial Legislatures
    • In the Central Assembly, the Congress secured 91.3 per cent votes in the

General Constituencies; the Muslim League won every Muslim seat

    • In the Provincial Legislature, the Congress won absolute majority in

Bombay, Madras, United Provinces, Bihar, Orissa and Central Provinces

    • In the Punjab a Coalition Government of the Congress Akalis and the Unionists was formed
    • The Muslim League could secure majority only in Bengal and Sind
  • On February 18, 1946, a section of Indians serving in the Royal Indian Navy,

Known as ratings (non-commissioned officers and sailors) mutinied in Bombay

    • They went on hunger strike in protest against untold hardships regarding pay and stood and the most outrageous racial discrimination in particular derogatory references to their national character
  • The Cabinet Mission composed of three British Cabinet Ministers- Sir Patrick Lawrence, the Secretary of State for India; Sir Stafford Cripps, President of the Board of Trade and A.V. Alexander. 
  • First Lord of the Admiralty arrived in New Delhi on March 24, 1946
  • Cabinet Mission announced its own recommendations on May 16, 1946
  • The Muslim League at first accepted the Cabinet Mission plan on June 6, 1946, but on July 29 withdrew its acceptance and called upon Muslims to resort to Direct Action to achieve Pakistan
  • The Viceroy Lord Wavell invited Jawaharlal Nehru, the leader of the largest party in India to form and interim Government, which was sworn in on September 2, 1946
  • It was composed of 12 members (including 3 Muslims) nominated by the

Congress with Jawaharlal Nehru as its Vice President

  • Constituent Assembly met for the first time on December 6, 1946 with Dr. Rajendra Prasad As its President
  • Prime Minister Attlee announced on February 20, 1947, in the House of Commons, that the British would quit India after transferring power “into responsible hands not later than June 1948”
    • Attlee also announced the appointment of Lord Mountbatten a Viceroy in place of Lord Wavell, Lord Mountbatten the 34th and the fast British Governor-General and Viceroy, arrived in India on March 22, 1947
    • The Congress leaders had also to consider the widespread communal violence and bloodshed that was ravaging the country, Jinnah’s uncompromising attitude on the issue of partition and the British decision to transfer power as soon as possible
  • On June 3, 1947, Prime Minster Attlee announced the Partition Plan or the June 3rd Plan in the House of Commons
  • The Congress Working Committee, which met on June 3, 1947 approved of the partition Plan the All India Congress Committee, which met in New Delhi on

June 14-15 ratified the approval

      • Pandit Govind Vallabh Pant, who moved the resolution for ratification, said, “This was the only way to achieve freedom and liberty for the country”.
      • Soon after partition was decided upon, the Indian Independence Bill was drafted, which was passed by the British Parliament in July 1947

 

 POINTS TO REMEMBER

COMMITTEES & COMMISSIONS

Year Commission                 Headed By     Governor General          Subject

1778  Amini Comm.            Hamine & Land                                Revenue

1852    Inam Comm.           Lord Dalhousie                                 Titles of Land Lords

1866    Cockerel Comm.                                                            Famine

                  Mansfield Comm.                                                           Currency

  1. Finance Comm.      Henary Campbell    Lord Lawrence
  2. Famine Comm.      Richard Starchy      Lord Lytton

1882    Hunter Comm.                                        Lord Ripon          Education

1886    Aitcheson Comm.                                  Lord Dufferin

  1. Nicholson Report                                                            Cooperatives
  2. Herschel Commission                          Lord Lansdowne     Currency            Fowler Commission                              Lord Elgin             Currency

           Opium Commission                              Lord Lansdowne    To present report                                                                                   on the effect                                        of opium

 

  1. Lyell Commission    James Lyell            Lord Elgin             For and elaborate

                                                                                                                 Enquiry into the 

causes of the                                       famines which                                      had occurred in                                   

1896-97

  1. Balington Smith 

           Commission                                                                    Currency

 

  1. Famine Comm.      MacDonald            Lord Curzon          For enquiry into                                                                                                 the severe

                                                                                                Drought occurred                                                                                                 in 1899

 

  1. Famine Comm.       A. MacDonnell        Lord Curzon           Famine
  2. Irrigation Comm.  Sir V. Scot Metcalf   Lord Curzon         Irrigation
  3. Police Comm.                                     Lord Curzon   Under the president ship

of Sir Andrew Frazer to inquire into the police administration of every province. 

 

1902    University Comm.   Thomas Raleigh   Lord Curzon     To probe into the     

functioning of

Universities 

1908    Convention Committee                                          The drafting the           

Constitution of the

Congress

1912 Arlington Comm.                             Lord Hardinge  Public services

  1. MacLean Comm.                            Lord Hardinge  Public services
  2. Industrial Comm.                                                     Industry
  3. Calcutta University 

Comm.                 Michael Saddler    Lord Chelmsford  To enquire into the  

condition and prospects of the University of

Calcutta 

1919 Sedition comm.    Justice Sydney Rowlett               To curb 

1919   Hunter Committee                                                     To enquire into the

Punjab disturbances 

1923 Retrenchment 

          Comm.                 Lord Inchcape       Lord Reading     Education 

1923 Lee Comm.         Lord Lee                Lord Reading     Civil Services

1925 Skeen Comm.       Andrew Skeen    Lord Reading     Indianisation of Army

  1. Simon Comm.      Sir John Simon    Lord Irwin        To review reforms of the

                                                                                                     Act of 1919

  1. Butler Comm.      Harcourt Butler      Lord Irwin         Relations between the       

British Govt. and the             

Native states

    1. Nilithgo Comm.                                  Lord Irwin       Agricultural Problems
    2. Whitley Comm.   J.H. Whitley            Lord Irwin       Condition of labour in

                                                                                                       plantation industry

1929 Hartong Comm.  Philip Hartong       Lord Irwin       Education

1929 Lindsey Comm.   A.D. Lindsey         Lord Irwin       Missionary Education

1934 Sapru Comm.     Tej Bahadur Sapru  Lord Willington  Causes of  Unemployment                             

                                                                                                       in united provinces

1938 National Planning

          Comm.               J.L. Nehru                 Lord Linlithgo    Economic Planning

1943   Famine Comm.   Sir John Woodhead  Lord Wavell      Bengal 

 PERSON ASSOCIATED WITH REVOLUTIONARY TERRORISM

 

      • Pulin Das                              1902         Foundation of Annushilan Samiti of Dacca             V.D Savarkar                              1904          (a) Establishment of Abhinav Bharat

                                                         1899

                                                         (b) Foundation of Mitramela in Maharashtra        Damodar Chapekar            1897          Assassination of Lt. Ayerst & Mr. Rand at & Balkrishna Chapekar                        Poona

      • Shyamjee Krishnaverma    1905           (a) India House in London

& M.L Dhingra                                  (b) Indian Home Rule Society in London

      • Prafulla Chaki                 1908           Throwing up bomb on Kingsford the judge

& Khudiram Bose                                of Muzaffarpur, who escaped unhurt

      • Madanlal Dhingra              1909           Assassination of Curzon-Willie in London       Hardayal                       1913           Foundation of Ghadar Party in San  

& Sohan Singh Bhakna                        Francisco, U.S.A

      • Barinder Kumar Ghosh      1907           Unsuccessful attempt of the murder of Lt.  

& Bhupendra Dutta                              Governor Fuler of West Bengal

      • Madam Cama           1908-09            (a) Foundation of Paris India Society in             Paris
        1. Foundation of Independent India Society
        2. Publication of Bande Matram
      • Tarakhnath Das                1909            Foundation in Indian Independent League
      • Vanhi Ayyer                   1911            (a) Murder of District Magistrate of Tirunavalli

                                                         (b) India Mother Association

      • Rasbihari Bose               1912             (a) Murder of Lord Harding at the time of          his arrival at Delhi
      • Jogesh Chatterjee           1924             Foundation of Hindustan Republican 
      • S.N. Sanyal                     1924            Foundation of Hindustan Republican

Association

      • Virendranath Chattopadhya               Foundation of Independent Indian Committee
      • Champkramanal Pillai                        Foundation of Indian National Party
      • Jatindranath Mukherjee                     Foundation of Yugantar Party               
      • Kartar Singh Sarbha         1924         Planning of the Murder of Police

Commissioner of Gopinath Saha Target in Calcutta

      • Bhagat Singh, Jatindranath,

Ajay Ghosh, Fannindra 

Nath Ghosh                     1928          Foundation of Hindustan Socialist Republican Army

      • Jatindra Nath Das                             Lohore Conspiracy Case
      • Lala Hardyal                   1913          Foundation of Gadar Party
      • Vipin Chandra Pal            1906          Foundation of Bande Matram
      • Uddham Singh -                              Murder of Sir Michal-O-Dyer in London
      • Ram Prasad Bismil           1924          (a) Foundation of Hindustan Republican                                                         Association

                                           1925          (b) Kakori Conspiracy

    • Asha-fak-ulla                    1925          Kakori Conspiracy
    • Roshan Lal                         1925          Kakori Conspiracy
    • Surya Sen                          1930          Chittagong Conspiracy
    • Chandrasekhar Azad        1932          (a) Self Shooting during the encounter with                                                           the Police at Alfred Park at Allahabad
    1. (b) Hindustan Socialist Republic Association
    • Bhagat Singh              1928         (a) Killing of Saunders
    1. (b) Throwing of a bomb in the Central

         Legislative Assembly

                                      1929         (c) Punjab Naujawan Bharat Sabha

  • Raj Guru              1928          Killing of Saunders
  • Batukeshwar Dutta          1929          Throwing of a bomb in the Central Legislative 

Assembly 

  • Jatin Das             1929           64 days Hunger Strike

 

 

LEFTIST ORGANISATION

 

ORGANISATION

YEAR

        FOUNDER

Communist Party of India

1925 

M.N. Roy

Labour Peasant Party

1923 

Singarvelu in Madras

Labour Swarajya Party

1925 

Muzaffar Ali and Kazi Nasrul

Kirti Kisan Party

           

Sonam Singh Josh in Punjab

 Workers & Peasants Party

1927 

S.S Mirzakar, K.N Joglekar,                               

S.V Ghale 

Bihar Socialist Party

1931 

Jai Prakash Narayan and Phoolan

Prasad Verma

 

 Congress Socialist Party

1934 

 

Narendra Dev, Jai Prakash       

Narayan, Minu Masani

 

 

 Forward Bloc 

1939 

 

Subhash Chandra Bose

 

 

 Congress Labour Party

1926 

 

 

 

 

 The Bolshevik Party of India

1942 

 

N.D. Mazumkar

 

 

 Radical Democratic Party

1940 

 

M.N Roy

 

 

 Bolshevik Leninist Party

1941 

 

Inder Sen and Ajit Rai

 

 

 Revolutionary Communist Party

1942 

 

Surender Tagore

 

 

 Hindustan Socialist

1928 

 

Chandra Shekhar Azad and 

 

 

 

 

 

Republic Association                

 

 

             

 

 

 

 

             

PRE-CONGRESS ORGANISATIONS

ORGANISATION                               FOUNDER                              PLACE            YEAR

  1. Landholder’s Society/ Zamindari    Dwarakanath Tagore        Calcutta           1837

    Association                                                   

    First political association

    Aim was to protect the class interest of the Zamindars of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa

 

  1. Indian National Union                   A.O. Hume        Calcutta           1883

    Promote relations between India and England

  1. Bengal British India Society           George Thompson            Calcutta           1843

    To look after the welfare of the common people

  1. British Indian Association              Devendra Nath Tagore         Calcutta           1851

    Aim was to promote the general welfare of the people

    Amalgamation of Bengal India Society and Landholders Society

 

  1. Madras Native Association               Madras             1852
  2. Bombay Association                      Jaganath Shankar Seth          Bombay            1852
  3. East India Association                   Dada Bhai Nauroji       London             1866

    Aim was to discuss Indian questions to influence British Public opinion

  1. Poona Sarvajanik Sabha                M.G. Rana de, G.V. Joshi  Poona               1870

    Aim was to carry an active political education in the country

  1. Indian Association                         S.N. Banerjee, A.M. Bose Calcutta            1876

The first issue taken up by the association was the reforms of the civil services      examinations

    Sponsored an all-Indian National Conference in 1883, 1885

  1. Madras Mahajan Sabha                M. Viraraghavachari,            Madars             1884

                                             G. Subramanian lyer,

                                             Ananda Charlu

  1. Bombay Presidency Association     Firozshah Mehta,            Bombay            1883

                                                        K.T. Telang,                               

                                            Badruddin Tayabji

  1. Indian Society                            Anand Mohan Bose          London              1872 13. British India Society                   William Adam                   Calcutta             1839       To create interests among the British about Indian affairs.

14. London Indian Society                Badruddin Tayabji,

                                           W.C. Banerjee,

                                           Firozshah Mehta

London              1865

15. National Indian Association         Mary Carpenter

London              1867

16. Deccan Association                             

                        1852

17. National Representative                                                    London              1883      To build up favorable public opinion in England and secure welfare for India

 

IMPORTANT CONGRESS SESSIONS      

YEAR VENUE        PRESIDENT                                     REMARK

  1. Bombay        W.C. Bannerjee                        72 delegates
  2. Calcutta         Dadabhai Nauroji                     436 delegates
  3. Madras          Badruddin Tayabji                   First Muslim President
  4. Allahabad George Yule                       First English President
  5. Bombay        Sir William Wedderburn                 1889 delegates

1892 Allahabad W.C. Banerjee               

1895 Poona       Surendranath Banerjee

  1. Lahore           G.K. Gohale
  2. Calcutta         Dadabhai Nauroji
  3. Surat Rashbehari Ghosh           Congress split and session broke up
  4. Madras          Rashbehari Ghosh           A constitution for the Congress
  5. Bombay        Sir S.P Sinha
  6. Lucknow       A.C. Majumdar                 Congress Merger & Pact with                   

Muslim League

  1. Calcutta         Mrs. Annie Besant           First Woman President

1920 Nagpur      C. Vijaya Raghavacharya        Change in the constitution of the

Congress

1922 Gaya               C.R. Das                                Formation of Swaraj Party

  1. Belgaon         Mahatma Gandhi
  2. Cawnpore Mrs. Sarojini Naidu             First Indian Woman President
  3. Madras          M.A. Ansari           Independence Resolution passed                                   

for the first time on the instance of

J.L. Nehru

  1. Calcutta         Motilal Nehru                    First All India Youth Congress
  2. Lahore           Jawaharlal Nehru             Poona Swaraj Resolution

1931                                                                          Karachi          Vallabhbhai Patel             Resolution on Foundation Rights                                    and National Economic Policy

1934                                                                          Bombay Rajendra Prasad                      Formation of Congress Socialist                                      Party

  1. Lucknow       Jawaharlal Nehru
  2. Faizpur          Jawaharlal Nehru             First session that was held in a

Village

  1. Haripura       Subhash Chandra Bose
  2. Tripuri           Subhash Chandra Bose          Resignation of S.C Bose (Rajendra     Prasad took over) and formation of forward Bloc
  3. Meerut          Jawahar Lal Nehru
  4. -           J.B. Kriplani

VARIOUS SATYAGRAHA

Champaran Satyagraha - (1917)

    • Led by Gandhi in Bihar on the issue of Tinkathia System under which peasants were obliged to cultivate Indigo on 3/20 of their land for European planters at unremunerated prices. 
    • The planters later began to demand Shaharbeshi (rent enhancement) and Tawan (lump-sum compensation) form the peasants in return for freeing them from the obligation. 
    • Satyagraha campaign led to abolition of Tinkathia System, reduction in Shaharbeshi and giving back to the peasants 25% of the total money extracted illegally.

Ahmedabad Satyargraha – (1918)

    • Organised by Gandhi in Ahmedabad to resolve the conflict between the millowners and their workers. 
    • The conflict was on the issue of plague bonus, the workers demanding 35% and the owners being agreed to pay only 20%. 
    • Gandhi observed hunger strike for the first time. The Satyagraha resulted in the fulfillment of the demand of the workers that was the plague bonus of 35%

Kheda Satyagraha-(1918)

    • Under the leadership of Gandhi over the issue of non-payment of land revenue on the part of the peasants in the event of repeated famines in Gujarat. 
    • Ultimately, the government passed a secret order directing the officers to raise the revenue only from those who could pay.

Rowlett Satyagraha-(1919)

    • An all-India Satyagraha organized by Gandhi over the passing of a black act, the Rowlett Act aiming at restricting the Civil rights of the Indians. 
    • It provided for detention without trial for a maximum of two years, a system of special courts etc. It was withdrawn following violence in Ahmedabad.

Forests Satyagraha-(1921-22)

    • Organised by Congress leaders over the issue of tax relaxation and forestrestriction at Poland in Guntur & Rayachoti in Cuddapah (Andhra Pradesh)

Nagpur Flag Satyagraha-(1923)

    • Organised against the prohibition on use of Congress Flag in certain areas of the city of Nagpur. 
    • It did not exhibit much vigour and ended in a compromise

Guru-Ka-Bagh Satyagraha-(1922-24)

    • Organised over a minor issue of cutting of Kikker tree in the premises of GuruKa-Bagh Gurudwara in Amritsar by the volunteers of Akali Dal.

Tarakeshwar Satyagraha-(1924)

    • Organised by Swami Viswananda and later by Chitranjan Das in Bengal against a corrupt Mahant

Borsad Satyagraha-(1923-24)

    • Led by Vallabhbhai Patel against a punitive tax on every adult in Borsad (Kheda district Gujarat) to pay for the police entrusted with the work of suppressing dacoits. 
    • Resulted in the abolition of the new levy

No-Revenue Movement of Petlad- (1924)

    • No-revenue movement organized against a tax-hike at petlad (Baroda). 
    • Withdrawn on account of some concessions made by Baroda officials

Vaikom Satyagraha-(1924-25)

    • First Satyagraha organized over the issue of temple-entry in Travancore; an expression of assertion of rights of low caste Ezhavas and Ollyas. 
    • Carried on under the leadership of T.K. Madhavan and K. Kelappan

Nabha Satyagraha-(1923)

    • Organised at Jaito in Punjab by the volunteers of Akali Dal for the restoration of forcibly deposed ruler of Nabha, Maharaja Ripudaman Singh.            Participation of Jawaharlal Nehru for a short period.

Bardoli Satyagraha-(1928)

    • Organised by Vallabhbhai Patel at Bardoli (Gujarat) against the 30% increase over the existing land revenue (Later reduced to 21.97%). 
    • Resulted in the reduction of land revenue to 6.3%

Hindu Satyagraha-(1938)

    • Started by Pandit Narendra in the city of Hyderabad and Maratha country with the demand for more jobs for Hindus 

Dhenkanal Satyagraha-(1933)

    • Organised by Nabakrishna Chaudhuri at Dhenkanal

Guruvayoor Satyagraha-(1931)

    • Organised by Kelappam

Dharsana Satyagraha-(1930)

    • Organised by Sarojini Naidu, Iman Saheb and Maniklal Naidu during the Civil Disobedience Movement

 

TITLES

 

Vallabhbhai Patel       -

Sardar, Iron Man

 

 

Subhash Chandra Bose -

Netaji

 

 

Bal Gangadhar Tilak - 

Lokmanya

 

 

Dada Bhai Nauroji     -

Grand Old Man

 

 

C.F. Andrew                 -

Dinbandhu

 

 

Raja Ram Mohan Roy                                         -

First Modern Man

 

 

J.B. Kriplani                  -

Acharya

 

 

Rabindra Nath Tagore                           -

Gurudeo

 

 

M.K. Gandhi                -

Mahatma (Given by R.N. Tagore), Bapu

 

C.R. Das                         -

Deshbandhu

 

C. Rajagopalachari     -

Rajaji

 

Abdul Gaffar Khan     -

Frontier Gandhi, Badshah Khan

 

Sarojini Naidu             -

Kokila

 

Jatin Mukherjee         -

Bagha Jatin

 

Chatherine Mary Heilaman -

Meera Behn

 

Margaret Noble          -

Sister Nivedita

 

Lala Munshi Ram        -

Swami Shradhanand

 

Narendra Nath Dutt      -

Swami Vivekananda

 

Gopal Hari Deshmukh                   -

Lokhitwadi

 

Lord Ripon                   -

Ripon, the Popular

 

Lala Lajpat Rai             -

Punjab Kesri

 

PROMNIENT LEADERS

Moderates

Dadabhai Nauroji. W.C. Banerjee, Surendranath Banerjee, Badruddin Tayabji, Pherozshah Mehta, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Anand Mohan, R. C.

Dutt, Subramanian Aiyer, Virraghavachariar, A. C. Mazumdar, Ananda

Charlu

Militants

Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Chandra Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai, Aurobindu Ghosh,

Ashwini Kumar Dutt, G. S. Khaparde, Barindra Kumar Ghosh, A. K. Dutt, S. Chakarwati, P. B. Das, Ajit Singh

Swarajists/Pro-Changers

C. R. Das, Motilal Nehru, Vithalbhai Patel, Lala Lajpat Rai, N. C. Kelkar,

Madan Mohan Malviya, M. R. Jayakar