Modern Indian History (Part-3)
MODERN INDIAN HISTORY
DECLINE OF MUGHAL EMPIRE
Bahadur Shah (1707-1712)
- War of succession among the three sons of Aurangzeb and emergence of Bahadur Shah as the victor.
- Reconciliation of the Sikhs by taking Guru Gobind Singh into Mughal service.
- Reconciliation of the Bundelas and the Jats by taking their chiefs into his service.
- Release of Sahu and outbreak of Maratha Civil War.
Jahandar Shah (1712-1713)
- War of succession among the four sons of Bahadur Shah and the success of Jahandar due to the support given to him by Zulfiqar Khan. Defeat of Jahandar by his nephew Farukh Siyar.
Farukh Siyar (1713-1719)
- Decisive role of the Sayyid Brothers (Abdulla Khan and Husain Ali Khan) in the succession of Farukh.
- Beginning of the struggle for power between the emperor and the Sayyid brothers.
- Murder of Farukh by the Sayyid brothers.
Muhammad Shah (1719-1748)
- Accession of Muhammad with the help of Sayyid brothers.
- Conspiracy against the Sayyid brothers and their murder by the other nobles in 1720.
- Foundation of the autonomous state of Hyderabad by Nizam-ul-Mulk in 1720.
- Nadir Shah’s invasion (1738-1739); loss Indus, the Kohinoor diamond, peacock throne, etc.
Ahmad Shah (1748-1754)
- First invasion of India by Ahmad Shah Abdali (ruler of Afghanistan and former general of Nadir Shah).
- His ‘wazir’, Imad-ul-Mulk, blinded him.
Alamgir II (1754-1759)
- He was killed in 1759 by his ‘wazir’, Imad-ul-Mulk.
Shah Alam II (1759-1806)
- He did not live in his capital in the initial years due to his fear of the ‘wazir’.
- Defeat in the battle of Buxar (1764).
- Capture of Delhi by the British in 1803 and his death as a prisoner of the British.
Akbar II (1806-1837)
- Establishment of the British as the paramount power in India.
- Conferment of the title of Raja to Ram Mohan Roy and the latter’s visit to England to plead for enhancement of the emperor’s pension. Roy’s death in England.
Bahadur Shah II (1837-1862)
- His participation in the Revolt of 1857 and execution of all the Mughal princes.
- His arrest and deportation to Rangoon in 1858; his death in the prison.
Causes for Decline
- Mistakes of Aurangzeb.
- Wars of succession.
- Weak personalities of the Later Mughals.
- Deterioration in the organization and character of the Mughal nobility.
- Failure of the Mughal economy to satisfy the minimum needs of its population.
- Breakdown of Mughal administration and armed power.
- Foreign Invasion.
- Absence of the spirit of political nationalism among the people of Mughal Empire.
- Inherent defects of hereditary despotism and centralized government.
- Indirect influence of religious reformers.
THE ADVENT OF THE EUROPEANS
- Vasco Da Gama discovered a sea route from Europe to India through the Cape of Good Hope. He reached the port of Calicut in 1498 and was received by the Hindu ruler of Calicut (known by the title of Zamorin). Second visit of Vasco Da Gama in 1502.
- Established their first factory in 1500 at Calicut, which was abandoned in 1525 due to the pressure of Zamorin.
- Cochin was the early Portuguese capital in India; later on, it was replaced by Goa.
- The first Portuguese Governor in India was Francisco De Alameda (1505-09).
- The Second Portuguese Governor was Alfonso De Albuquerque (1509-15). He captured Goa from the ruler of Bijapur in 1510 and made it the capital of Portuguese Empire in the east. He encouraged his natives to marry Indian women. He consolidated Portuguese Power in India.
- Other important governor was Nino Da Cunha (1529-1538). He acquired Diu and Bassein from Bahadurshah of Gujarat.
- Next important governor was Martin Alfonso De Souza. The famous Jesuit saint Francisco Xavier came to India with him.
- They lost Bombay, as it was given to Charles II of England by the king of Portugal as dowry in the marriage of his sister (1661).
- The Marathas captured Salsette and Bassein in 1739 from the Portuguese.
- Ultimately, the Portuguese were lift with only Goa, Diu and Daman that they retained till 1961.
- They made the spice trade (particularly Pepper trade) a monopoly.
- They seized upon the strategic point in the India Ocean in order to control the vast network of Asian maritime trade.
- They also sold the offices of Captains and Customs Collectors in the Indian Ocean strongholds.
- Important Portuguese settlements on west coast were Calicut (1500), Cochin (1501), Cannanore (1503), Quilon (1503), Chaliyam (1531), Rahol (1535), Crangannore (1536), Mangalore (1568), Hanaver (1568), Diu (1509), Bassin (1534), Surat (1599), Daman (1599), Bhavnagar.
- Important Portuguese settlement on East coast was Meliapore (San Thome), Chittagaon (1536), Satgon (1538), Hugli (1579-80), Bandel.
- They established a fortress at Manar in 1518 on the western coast of Ceylon.
- The first effort to established commerce in Bengal was made for Chittagaon, the chief port of Bengal during this period.
- They obtained permission from Mahmud Shah the King of Bengal, to erect factories at Chittagaon and Satgaon in 1536. Akbar granted them the second settlement at Hugli in 1579-80. The third one was established at Bandel through a Farman of Shajahan in 1633.
- The chief aim of the Portuguese in discovering the sea-route connecting the East with Portugal was to collect spies directly from the places of production rather than from the hands of intermediaries like the Italian and the Muslim traders.
- The Portuguese had armed vessels paying the Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea.
They confiscated ships carrying commodities, which were not given passes
(Cartaz) by the Portuguese officials.
- The booty thus obtained yielded a sizeable source of income, which was again invested in trade. The person interested in sending their ships to other parts of India or to Asian countries was required to take passes (Cartaz) from the Portuguese for which a fee was charged. Such ships were obliged to visit any of the ports in India where the Portuguese had customs houses, and to pay taxes.
- The cartaz was first issued in 1502. In cartaz, it was specifically mentioned that certain items like pepper, horses ginger, coir, ship, pitch, sulphur, lead, saltpeter, cinnamon, etc. were not to be loaded on their ships.
- Rulers like Akbar and his successors, Nizam shah of Ahmednagar, Adil Shah of Bijapur, kings of Cochin, the Zamorins of Calicut and the rulers of Cannore purchased passes from the Portuguese to send their ships to various places.
- De Almeda was defeated at Chaul by Mahmud Begarha, ruler of Gujarat with the help of Egypt. However, the Portuguese defeated them in 1509.
- Portuguese killed Bahadur Shah, ruler of Gujarat (1526-37) when sought shelter of the Portuguese at Diu after Humayun captured Mandasor.
- Fortunes of the Portuguese began to decline after death of Castro in 1548.
- Portuguese lost Hoogly to the Mughals in 1632, driven out by Qasim Khan.
- Portuguese lost Hormuz in 1622 to the British.
- The Dutch shattered the naval monopoly of the Portuguese.
- Main items of export procured by the Portuguese from India were- Muslim, Chintz, Pepper (Malabar), Ginger (Malabar), Cinnamon (Malabar) Red & White Sandalwood (Malabar), Indigo, ivory, Turmeric, Silk (Bengal), Spikenard (Bengal), Pearl etc.
- 'Dutch East India Company' was formed in 1602.
- Other important factories of the Dutch were at Pulicat, Surat, Bimilipatnam, Karikal, Chinsura (Fort Gustavus), Kasimbazar, Patna, Balasore, Negapatnam and Cochin.
- Initially their headquarters was at Pulicat after obtaining permission from king of Chandragiri till 1690 and then Negapatnam.
- They broke down the Portuguese monopoly in India.
- They popularized spice and textile trade, besides they exported Indigo, Saltpeter and Raw Silk.
- Dutch commercial activities began to decline by the beginning of 18th century and with the Battle of Bedera with the English in 1759 ended.
- The Dutch East Indian company's chief administrative center was at Batavia.
- They set up their first factory at Petapuli in North Coromandal in 1606 followed by another at Masulipatanam.
- They had two factories in the interior of the Golkunda territories- one at Nagalavancha and another at Golconda.
- In Negalavancha, the factory was established in 1670, but owing to political unrest, the Dutch withdrew from there in the 1680's.
- In Golconda, they established their factory in 1662.
- In the Bengal region two more factories were established by the Dutch in Karakul in 1669 and in Malda in 1676 but both had to close down soon.
- The English decided to drive the Dutch away from their Indian possessions and joined hands with the Portuguese in India to drive the Dutch out.
- By 1795, the English succeeded in expelling the Dutch completely.
- The Dutch company was governed through 17 directors commonly known as Gentlemen XVII.They got favourable response from the rulers of Golconda.
- They got right to perfect coin in the pulicat mint in 1657 from Golconda king.
- By the Farman of 1676, the Golconda ruler granted the Dutch complete freedom from tariffs in Golconda.
- The Dutch succeeded in getting Farman from the Emperor Jahangir for trading along the west coast.
- They were exempted from toils from Burhanpur to Cambay and Ahmedabad.
- Shah Alam granted total exemption to the company from paying transit throughout the Mughal Empire.
- Aurangzeb confirmed all the privileges granted by Shahjahan to the Dutch in Bengal in 1662.
- Jahandar Shah confirmed all the privileges granted by Aurangzeb in Coromandal in 1712.
- A group of merchants known as the ‘Merchant Adventures’ in 1599 formed the “English East India Company”.
- Queen Elizabeth gave the company a charter in 1600 giving it the monopoly of Eastern Trade for fifteen years.
- The English ambassador Captain Hawkins arrived at Jahangir’s Court to seek permission, for trade with India. He was granted a Mansab of 400 Zat.
- Jahangir granted permission to erect a factory at Surat (1608).
- Sir Thomas Roe came to the court of Jahangir as the ambassador of James I, received permission to trade, and establishes factories at different parts of the empire.
- The British acquired the Zamindari of the Villages of Sutanuti, Kolkata and Govindpur (1698).
- Job Charnock established factory at Sutanuti.
- The factory at Sutanuti was fortified and it was named Fort William (1700).
- Sir Charles Eyre was the first President of Fort William.
- All settlements in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa were placed under Fort William (1700).
- In south factories were established at Masulipatnam in 1611 and at Armagaon (near Pulicat in 1626).
- Francis Day obtained the site of Madras from the Raja of Chandragiri with permission to build a fortified factory (1639). The factory was named Fort St. George.
- Madras replaced Masulipatnam as the headquarters of the English on the coromandal coast.
- All the English settlements in Eastern India (Bengal, Bihar and Orissa) and the Coromandal were placed under the control of the President and Council of Fort St. George.
- They established factories also at Agra, Ahmedabad, Baroda and Broach.
- The company acquired Bombay from Charles II on lease in 1668. Thereafter Bombay replaced Surat as the headquarters on the west coast.
- The Sultan of Golconda issued the company the Golden Farman allowing them to trade within the ports of the kingdom freely on payment of duties worth 500 pagodas a year (1632).
- Aurangzeb granted a Farman by which they were exempted from the payment of custom duties in Bengal in return for an annual payment (1691).
- Their internal management of the English company was administered by a court
of committees whose nomenclature later changed to court of directors. It consisted of a governor, a deputy governor, and 24 members to be elected annually by a general body of the merchants forming the company. Besides, there was a secretary and a treasurer.
- The company's superior body court of directors was based in London while its subordinate body was in Asia.
- The shareholders of the company annually elected the Directors. Each shareholder, irrespective of the value of the share had only one vote.
- The membership of the company was not confined to shareholders only but it could be secured through inheritance or presentation by paying an entrance fee through apprenticeship services etc.
- Company enjoyed extensive powers to issue orders and to make laws in accordance with the laws and customs of the reign.
- The company also possessed judicial powers to punish its servants for their offences by imprisonment or fine.
- In India, each factory was administered by a Governor–in–council.
- The governor was the President of the council with no extra privileges.
- Everything was decided in the council by majority votes.
- The members of the council consisted of senior merchants of the company.
- Queen Elizabeth was one of the shareholders of the company.
- After Queen Elizabeth's death, James I renewed the charter though it could be revoked at any time at three-year notice.
- The company got the power to enforce law to maintain discipline on long voyages. In spite of all opposition English merchants, known as interloper has continued to defy the monopoly of the company by indulging in the East Indian trade on their own.
- These Free Merchants tried to press their demands in public as well as a Parliament. The Parliament passed the resolution that all the citizens of England had equal right to trade in the East. This resulted in the formation of New Company. The old Company refused to surrender their privileges.
- After long drawn conflict, both the companies agreed to join hands and a new company. “The Limited Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East India” formed in 1708.
- Hawking got permission to open trade at Surat in 1611, but later, under Portuguese influence, he was expelled from Agra.
- Captain best succeeded in getting a royal Farman to open factories in the West Surat, Cambay, Ahmedabad and Goa in 1613.
- The Portuguese gave the island of Bombay to King Charles II of England in dowry in 1662.
- During the closing years of Jahangir’s reign when the English Company tried to fortify their factory at Surat. The Mughal officers imprisoned them.
- The English East India Company got a nishan from Sultan Shuja in 1651 which they received trading privileges in return for a fixed annual payment of Rs. 3000.
- By another nishan, the English Company was exempted from Custom duties in 1656.
- Shaista Khan's Farman finally ensured a custom–free English trade.
- The English declared war against the Mughal Emperor and sacked Hugli in 1686.
- Aurangzeb granted them permission to trade on payment of Rs. 150000 as compensation.
- The English king sent a special envoy Sir William Norris to Aurangzeb's court to secure the formal grant of the trading concessions and the right to exercise full English jurisdiction over the English settlements in 1698.
- They established their first factory in Orissa at Hariharpur and Balasore in 1633.
- They got permission to trade with Hugli in 1651.
- English got Hariharpur in Mahanadi delta in 1633.
- The rebellion of Shoba Singh a Zamindar of Burdwan, provided opportunity to the English to fortify the settlement at Sutanuti.
- The diplomatic mission during Farrukh Siyar's reign reached the court in 1715. The mission was led by John Surman.
- Dr. William Hamilton a member of the Surman co-commission cured Farruk Siyar of a painful disease.
- Faruk Siyar granted a Farman in 1717 for duty free trade.
- The Farman or Farrukh Siyar (1717) is called the Magna Carta of the company.
- The 1717 Farman also gave the British right to rent additional territory around Calcutta.
- The Company minted its coin at Bombay, which circulated throughout the Mughal Empire.
- Caries Boon fortified Bombay in 1720.
- In 1693, a new rival company General Society gave to the Government $52 million loan and got the monopoly of trade in India. But it merged with the East India Company giving new name – “The company of merchants of England Trading to the East Indies” in 1702 (This agreement came into effect in 1707).
- When the British under Sir Joan Child captured two Mughal ships in 1689, Aurangzeb ordered the Siddis to block Bombay. Surat was captured and the Englishmen over there were imprisoned. At Sir John Child's plea, Aurangzeb pardoned the British. The British paid Rs. 1.5 lakh as compensation.
- Arrival in India in 1616 after forming an East India Company.
- They founded settlements at Tranquebar (Tamil Nadu) in 1620 and at Serampore (Bengal) in 1676.
- Their headquarters in India was Serampore.
- They could not establish their position in India and eventually sold all their Indian settlements to the English in 1845.
- They were more concerned with the missionary activities than trade.
- They established their factories at Masullipatam and Porto Novo.
- Colbert formed French East India Company under state patronage in 1664. It was named the Compagnie Des Indes Orientals.
- Francois Caron set up the first French factory at Surat in 1668.
- Later Maracara set up a factory at Masullipatnam in 1669 by securing a patent from the Sultan of Golconda.
- The French (By Francois Martin & Bellanger De Lespinary) acquired from the Muslim governor of Valikoindapuram.
- The village developed into Pondicherry and its first governor was Francois Martin.
- They acquired Chandranagar in Bengal from the Mughal governor Shayista
Khan in 1690.
- Pondicherry (Fort Louis) was made the headquarters of all the French settlements in India and Francois Martin Became the governor-general of French affairs in India. Duplex was an important French governor in India.
- The French could not compete with the English and finally their commercial venture in India declined.
- The supreme body of the French Company was known as Superior Council of the Indies and headed by a Director-General.
- The Supreme Council composed of five members was presided over by the governor.
- French East India Company was a state controlled organisation and thus differed from the Chartered.
- It was highly dependent on the French government for its grants, subsidies, Loans etc.
- French commander Martin readily acknowledged the authority of Shivaji and agreed to pay him an amount in lieu of license to trade in his dominions.
- The French got the permission to fortify Pondicherry in 1689 from Sambhaji.
- They also succeeded in getting a Farman from Aurangzeb as early as 1669 to open their factory at Surat.
- Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb ceded Chandranagar Village to the French in 1688. The French maintained close ties with Dost-ali, the Nawab of Carnatic.
- Based on a strong recommendation by Dost-Ali the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah issued a Farman granting permission to the French to mint and issue gold and silver currency bearing the stamp of the Mughal emperor and the name of the place of minting.
- The Nawab of Bengal granted the French a site near Calcutta in 1674.
- The Dutch blocked the French commercial activities at Hugli. They seized San Thome near Madras in 1672 but soon defeated by combined forces of sultan of Golconda and the Dutch. Later, they established their control over San Thome.
- In the Dutch-French rivalry, the English always supported the Dutch.
- The Dutch captured Pondicherry in 1692 from the French but later gave back in 1697 by the Treaty of Ryswick.
- After 1742, the political motives began to overshadow commercial gains and the French governor Duplex began the policy of extending territorial empire in India. This led to a series of conflict with the English.
- They fought a decisive battle at Wandiwash in 1760 against English; the French were defeated and lost almost all their possession in India.
- The Treaty of Paris (1763) by which Pondicherry did final settlement of the French with that of English and some other French settlements were returned to the French.
- Appointed as Director General of French Colonies in India in 1641.
- The Mughal emperor conferred on his the title of Nawab in 1641.
- In 1750, Muzafar Jung, Subedar of Deccan, invested him with the title of Nawab of Carnatic of all the territories between river Krishna and Cape Camorin including Carnatic.
- Under his expert guidance, Chandranagar became the most flourishing European settlement in Bengal.
- Duplex first made extensive use of disciplined troops.
- He was the first to think of a plan of permanently stationing Europeans troops at native counts at latter's expenses. The English followed the policy later on.
RISE OF AUTONOMOUS STATES
Murshid Quli Khan
- founded the independent state of Bengal in 1717
- was granted governship of Orissa in 1719 by Farukk Siyar
- transferred capital from Dacca to Murshidabad
- first appointed as diwan
- abolished the separate offices of the diwan and the nazim and combined them into one
- encouraged the zamindars to emerge as a powerful political force in the province
- nominated his daughter son Sarfaraz as his successor
- last governor of Bengal directly appointed by the emperor
- introduced the farming of revenue in which he gave preference to local zamindars and money-lenders
- reorganized the administrative set-up, gave equal opportunities to Hindus and Muslims both
- granted Taccavi loans to peasants to improve agriculture
- prevented misuse of Dastak by the British officials
- suppressed the revolts of local zamindars such as Udai Narayan, Sita Ram Rai, Sujat Khan and others
- resumed all the jagir lands into khalisa lands
- continued to send regular tribute to the Mughal Emperor
- made estimate of the revenue of state
- was granted Bihar in 1733 by Md. Shah
- from the time onwards governor of Bengal ruled over Bengal, Orissa and Bihar divided Bengal into 4 administrative units
- assassinated by Aliwardi Khan, the deputy governor of Bihar
- overthrown by his father Shujauddin Muhammad Khan
- concluded peace with the Marathas; paid chauth of Bengal (Rs. 12lakh)
- prevented the English and the French from misusing their privileges and fortifying factories
- organized a strong military force with the help of the Pathans settled in Bihar and North India
- stopped paying annual tributes to the Mughals
- Orissa was given to the Marathas on condition that the Marathas would not enter the dominations of Alivardi in future to face another formidable threat from the rebel Afghan troops
- prevented misuse of dastak by the British officials and even expected some contribution from them
- legalized his surpation by receiving a Farman from the Mughal emperor Muhammad shah by paying him a sum of Rs. 2crore
- Black Hole episode in which 23 out of 146 English prisoners died (According to Howell)
- seized English factory at Kasimbazar and Calcutta
- signed Treaty of Alinagar (Feb 1957) with British
- some of persons who conspired with the British against Siraj-ud-daula
Officer-in-change of Calcutta
A rich merchant of Calcutta
A famous Banker of Bengal
Khadim Kahan Noble
- fought Battle of Plassey (June 1757) against Colonel Clive & Admiral Watson
- captured & slain by Miran son of Mir Jafar
- captured Fort William, placed Calcutta under Manik Chand and renamed the city of Calcutta as Alinagar
- by Treaty of Alinagar, he gave to the British-
- former privileges of made
- permission to fortify Calcutta
- huge compensation
- British indirectly supported the claim of Ghasiti Begum
- In the battle of plassey two faithful soldiers of the Nawab Mir Manad and Mohan Lal fought bravely
- granted the right to free trade in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa and Zamindari of 24 parganas to the British
- forced to abdicate because of direct confrontation with in East India company in order to Company’s relentless drive for more revenues in Bengal
- surrendered all French settlements to the British
- could not punish Diwan Rai Durlabh and Deputy Governor of Bihar Ram
Narayan due to British Intervention
- intrigued with the Dutch to oust the British but the Dutch were defeated as Bedara (1759)
- preferred to reside at Calcutta after forgoing the pension of Rs. 1500 per month
- Mir Qasim signed an agreement with the acting Governor Howell in 176 by which
- ceded districts of Burdwan, Midnapur and Chittagon to the British
- agreed to give Rs.5 lakh to the Company for fighting in the South India
- granted Zamindari of Burdman, Midnapore and Chittagong to the British
- transferred capital from Murshidabad to Monghyr in 1762
- abolished all duties on internal trade against British Wishes in order to protect the Indian Traders
- fought Battle of Buxer (Oct 1764) against Major Hector Munro in alliance with Shah Alam ll and Shujauddaula
- got the Nawabship through a secret deal with the English and faced the same fate like Mir Jafar
- remodeled the army, established a fire arms manufactory
- disbanded the troops which had served previous Nawabs and whose loyalty was suspected
- attempted to modernise army, established fire locks and gun-factory at Monghyr
- imposed addition taxes -1½ annas as crown rents and Khajiri-Jama
- after being defeated at Buxer, signed Treaty of Allahabad with the British in 1765 and fled to Awadh
- deposition and execution of Mir Qasim was followed by the restoration of Mir Jafar
- was reinstated in 1763 by the British on certain conditions
- agreed not to disturb the company gornastas (Agents)
- Puppet in the hands of the British
- disbanded meet of his armies
- practically surrendered the Nizamat to the British
- agreed to live on fixed pension to be paid by the British
- dual government started in Bengal (1765-72)
- In 1772, he was pensioned of by the company – the British took administration into their hand and ended the dual system
Sadat Khan Burhan-ul-Mulk
- founded the independent state of Awadh in 1722
- summoned to Delhi at the time of Nadir Shah’s invasion
- came up with a huge force to save the Mughal emperor from the Persian attack in 1739
- Imprisoned by Nadir Shah after Battle of Kamal (1739), invited him to Delhi where he promised to give twenty crores
- committed suicide
- nominated his son-in-law, Safdar Jang, as deputy governor of the province without the prior Consent of the emperor
- Wazir of Mughal empire
- from 1748 the Nawabs of Awadh came to be known as the Nawab Wazir since they held the post of Nawab of Awadh & Wazir of the Mughal empire at the same time
- allied with Marathas and Jats for suppressing the Rohillas and Bangesh Pathans
- Signed an agreement with the Peshwa by which the Marathas were given Rs.50 lakh and Chauth of Punjab and Sind. In return, Marathas were to protect the Mughal emperor against Abdal’s invasions
- lost in the civil war of 1755 at the Mughal’s Court and returned to Awadh
- concluded the Treaty of Banaras with Warren Hastings (1773)
- tried to consolidate the basis of autonomous political system in Awadh
- provided shelter to the fugitive Mughal emperor Shah Alam ll
- in alliance with the Nawab of Bengal and the Mughal emperor fought the Battle of Buxur against the British (1764)
- signed Treaty of Allahabad (1765) by which-
- gave Allahabad and Kora to the Mughal emperor Shah Alam ll
- paid Rs.50 lakh as indemnity
- confirmed Balwant Singh, Zamindar of Banaras to his state
- annexed Rohilkhand in 1774 with the help of the British
- concluded the Treaty of Faizabad with the British (1775)
- transferred capital from Faizabad to Lucknow (1775)
- build up around the Lucknow court a vibrant and living cultural arena
- Extended his patronage to luminaries and poets, Mirza Rafi Sauda, Mir Ghulam Hasan etc.
- deposed in favour of Sadat Khan
- came to the throne with the help of the British
- his Wazir revolted and murdered the British Resident Cherry, but it was suppressed
- by subsidiary alliance he ceded to the British fertile areas of the Ganga-Yamuna doab
signed subsidiary alliance with Lord Wellesley (1801)
- adopted the title of King of Awadh in 1819
Wazid Ali Shah (1847-56)
- was himself a poet and expert in Kathak dance
- annexation of Awadh by Dalhousie in 1856 on the ground of misgovernment pensioned off and deported to Calcutta
- son of Wajid Ali Shah
- rebels of 1857 enthroned him to the Nawab of Awadh
Chin Quilic Khan (1724-48)
- founder of Hyderabad as an independent state in 1724
- was conferred the tittle Khan-i-Dauran and later Nizam-ul-Mulk by Farukk Siyar
- Wazir of the Mughals (1722-24) during the reign of Md. Shah
- was conferred the tittle Asaf Jah by Md. Shah
- was leader of the Turani faction of nobility at the Mughal Court
- while he was Wazir he added Malwa and Gujarat to the subahdari of the Deccan
- did not openly declared independence of Hyderabad and continued to show loyalty to the Mughal emperor
- his Diwan was Puran Chand
- defeated by the Peshwa Baji Rao l in the Battles of Palkhed (1728) and Bhopal (1737)
- accompanied the Mughal emperor to the Battle of Karnal (1739) against Nadir Shah
- played a role of peace-maker between Nadir Shah and the Mughal emperor provided incentives for agricultural and industrial development
Muzaffar Jang (1750-51)
- accession to throne with French help
- ceded to the French Pondicherry and Masulipatnam
- Duplex was made honorary governor of the Mughal dominion south of Krishna river
- Duplex received an annual jagir of Rs.1lakh
- Bussy, an import officer of Duplex was stationed at Hyderabad
- accession to throne with French help
- granted the territories of Northern Sarkars to the French
Nizam Ali (1760-1803)
- concluded subsidiary Alliance (1798) with British
- aided the British against Marathas and Tipu Sultan of Mysore
Osman Ali Khan
- dreamt of establishing an independent state after end of the British rule in India
Haider Ali (1761-82)
- began his career as a solider in Mysore state which became independent of the
Vijayanagar empire in 1565 under Hindu Wodeyar Dynasty
- founder of Mysore as an independent state in 1761 with its capital
Seringapatam after overthrowing the real power behind the Mysore throne, the minister Nunjaraj
- with the help of the French tried to strengthen organizational discipline in army
- fought First Anglo-Mysore war and died during the Second Anglo-Mysore War
- after First Anglo-Mysore war in 1767-69 signed humiliating treaty with the British (Treaty of Madras)
- in the second battle of Anglo-Mysore, he was defeated by the British at Porto
Novo in 1781 by Eyre Cole but by defeated them in 1782
- set up arsenal factory at cindigul with the help of the French
- defeated by the Peshwa in 1764, 1766 and 1771 but after Peshwa’s death (1772) he recovered his territories
- continued Second-Anglo-Mysore war
- introduced new system of coinage, new scales of weights & measures and a new calendar
- attempted to set up a trading company of European lines
- sent ambassadors to foreign countries to develop trade
- organised infantry on European lines and attempted to build a modern navy
- showed interest in French Revolution-planted the Tree of Liberty at
Seringapatm and became a member of the Jacobean Club
- called Sher-E-Mysore
- defeated by Cornwallis with the help of the Marathas and Nizam of Hyderabad in 1791
- he lost Third Anglo-Mysore war and signed Treaty of Seringapatnam (1792) by which he lost about half of the territories to the British
- Defeated in Fourth Anglo-Mysore war (1798-99) by Wellesley. Tipu died and his family was deported to Vellore
- his territories were divided between British and Nizam of Hyderabad
- a boy of royal family (Wodeyar) was installed on the Mysore throne and subsidiary treaty was signed
- was first to apply western method in the organisation of administration; had no post of Wazir
- administration was divided into 7 principal departments each under a Mir Asif
- provinces were called Turkish
- increased the land revenue by 37½ after 1792
- established 3 dockyards at Mangalore, Wazirabad and Molidabad
he used to say “I can ruin their (British) resources by land but I cannot dry up the sea
- adopted title of Padshah in 1787
- repaired the temple of Goddess Sharda after it was destroyed by the Marathas
- he had temples of Sri Ranganatha, Narsimha and Gongadhareshwa within his fort
- Rise of Sikhs under gurus
- Organisation of Sikhs into 12 Mists (Confederacies)
- Zakaria khan, the governor of Lahore, had tried to established an independent political system in Punjab
- The Sikhs organized themselves into numerous small and highly mobile Jathas and posed serious challenge to the Mughal imperial authority
- laid foundation of Punjab as an independent state in 1792
- belongs to Sukerchakia Misl
- captured Lahore with the help of Zaman Shah of Afghanistan
- captured Amritsar, added golden dome to the golden temple
- establishment of control over all the misls west of Sutluj
- occupation of Ludhiana-British intervention and mission of Metcalf
- Treaty of Amritsar (1809)- Ranjit Singh agreed to continue his activities to the west of the Sutluj
- acquired Kohinoor from Shah Shuja of Afghanistan after giving him protection
- He made tripartite treaty (1838) with Lord Auckland and Shah Shuja to place the latter on the throne of Afghanistan by invasion
- Organization of his army on western lines. His Army was second best army in Asia
- his successors were Kharak Singh, Nao Nihal Singh, Sher Singh, Dalip Singh
- enlisted Gurukhas into the army after 1837
- refused a passage to the British army through his territory
- designated his government as Sarkar-i-Khatsaji
- struck coins in the name of Guru Nanak and Guru Govind Singh
- provinces were under Nazim and districts under Kardar
- justice department was called Adalat-i-Ala
- founded navy gun factories at Lahore and Amritsar
- raise Fauj-i-khas under general Ventura and Allazd
- his Prime Minister Dhian Singh Degro, who enjoyed the title of Raja