Indian Geography

India

  • India lies entirely in the Northern hemisphere, extending between latitudes 8°4’ and 37°6’N, longitudes 68°7’ and 97°25’E and measures about 3.214 km from North to South between the extreme latitudes and about 2933 km from East to west between the extreme longitudes.
  • India has tropical monsoon type of climate. It is greatly influenced by the presence of the Himalayas in the north, as they block the cold air masses from Central Asia. It is because of them only that the monsoons have a watershed in India.
  • The Tropic of Cancer divides India into two almost equal climatic zones, namely, the northern zone and the southern zone. The warm temperate or the subtropical climate of the northern zone gives it cold winter seasons and the hot summer seasons. The southern tropical climatic zone is warmer than the north and does not have a clear cut winter season.
  • The northern zone does not have the midday sun vertically overhead during any part of the year; the southern zone has the midday sun almost vertically overhead at least twice every year.
  • India has a land frontier of about 15,200 km. The total length of the coastline of the mainland. Lahsdweep and Andaman and Nicobar Islands is 7,616.6 km.
  • Countries having a common border with India in the order border length are Bangladesh, China, Pakistan, Nepal, Myanmar, Bhutan and Afghanistan.

The length of India’s Bordars

Country

Length

Bangladesh

4096 km

China

3439 km

Pakistan

3325 km

Nepal

1751 km

Myanmar

1643 km

Bhutan

699 km

Afghanistan

106 km

  • Sri Lanka is separated from India by a narrow channel of sea formed by the Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar.
  • Madhya Pradesh has the largest area under forests followed by Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Arunachal Pradesh.
  • As per percentage of forest area to total area, first is Andaman an Nicobar Island, followed by Mizoram, Manipur, Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura and Nagaland. They are in a very comfortable position as more than half of their area is under forests.
  • Arunachal Pradesh has the highest per capita forest area.
  • In Mangrove forests, West Bengal holds the first position, followed by Gujarat and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
  • The lowest forest percentage is in Haryana and Punjab, because of the extensive agriculture.
  • There are 96 National Parks and 510 Wildlife Sanctuaries in India.
  • Madhya Pradesh and Andaman and Nicobar Islands have the maximum number of National Parks (9 each) while Andaman and Nicobar Islands has 96 and Maharashtra has 36 Wildlife Sanctuaries (maximum in India).
  • In India, the first biosphere reserve-Nilgiri biosphere reserve- came into being in 1986. So far, 14 biosphere reserves have been set up in the country.
  • Out of these 14, Nilgiri, Sunderbans, Manas and Gulf of Mannar have been recognized on world Network of Biosphere Reserves by UNESCO.

MOUNTAIN PASSES OF INDIA

  • Banthhal Pass: Doda and Anantnag districts, J & K.
  • Shipki La: River Sutltej enters India from Tibet, H.P.
  • Bara Lacha La: Kyelang and Leh, H.P.
  • Rohtang: Kullu and Kyelang, H.P.
  • Bombi La: Tezpur and Tawang, Arunachal Pradesh.
  • Thaga La ad Niti La: Uttarakhand
  • Lipu: Leh, Indo-Nepal-China, Uttarakhand
  • Jelep La: India and China (Gangtok-Lhasa Road), Sikkim
  • Nathu La: India and China (Entry to Chumbi Valley), Sikkim.
  • Karakoram Pass and Aghil Pass: J & K.
  • Palghat: Palakkad and Coimbatore.
  • Shenhotta: Kollam and Madurai.
  • Thalghat: Mumbai and Pune
  • Bhorghat: Mumbai and Nasik.
  • PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA
  • India can be divided into four natural regions-(i) The Himalays, (ii) The plains of Ganga and Jamuna (iii) Thar Desert (iv) The Deccan Plateau.

      In India, of the total land mass:

      Plains: 43.3%

      Plateaus: 27.7%

      Hills: 18.6%

      Mountains: 10.7%

  • The geological region broadly grouped into three regions: the Himalayas and their associated group of mountains, the Indo-Ganga Plain and the Peninsular shield.
  • The Himalayan mountain belt to the North and the Naga-Lushai Mountain in the east, are the region of mountain-building movement were under marine conditions about 60 crore years ago. The Indo-Ganga plains are a great alluvial tract that separates the Himalayas in the North from the Peninsula in the South.
  • The peninsula is a region of relative stability and occasional seismic disturbances. Highly metamorphosed rocks of the earliest periods, dating back as far as 380 crore years, occur in this Peninsular area.
  • Himalayas mean ‘Abode of Snow’. They are one of the youngest fold mountain ranges in the world and comprise mainly sedimentary rocks.
  • They stretch from the Indus river in the west to the Brahmaputra river in the east. Total length is about 5000 km. The width of the Himalayas varies from 500 km in Kashmir to 200 km in Arunachal Pradesh. Their average height is 2000m.
  • In the Himalayan region, the Kashmir and Kullu Valleys are fertile regions.
  • Jelep La and Nathu La passes are the main trade routes in the Indo-Tibet region through Chumbi Valley.
  • Noth-East of Darjeeling and Shipki La is the Sutlej valley and North East of Kalpa are other high attitude passes.
  • The mountain wall extends over a distance of about 2,400 km with a varying depth of 240 to 320 km.
  • In the East between India and Myanmar and India Bangladesh hill ranges are much lower.
  • Garo, Khasi, Jaintia and Naga Hills, running almost East-West, join the chain to Mizo and Rkhime Hills running North South.
  • The Pamir, popularly known as the Roof of the World, is the connecting link between the Himalayas and the high ranges of Central Asia.
  • Trans-Himalayan Zone range lies to the north of the Great Himalayas. It has some important ranges like Karakoram, Laddakh, Zanskar, etc. the highest peak in this region is K2 or Godwin Austin (8611 m, in Pak occupied Kashmir). Other high peaks are hidden Peak (8068 m), Broad Peak (8047 m) and Gasherbrum II (8035 m).
  • The longest glacier is Siachin in the Nubra valley, which is more than 72 km long (biggest glacier in the world). Biafo, Baltaro, Batura, Hispar are the other important glaciers in the region.
  • This area is the largest snow-field outside the Polar Regions.
  • The plains of the Ganga and the Indus are about 2,400 km long and 240-320 km broad. These are one of the world’s greatest plains formed by basins of three distinct river systems.
  • The Aravalli mountains (Rajasthan) are world’s oldest mountains. Guru Shikhar is the highest peak on which Mount Abu (1,722 m) is situated.
  • The Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmputra rivers are the greatest stretches of flat alluvium and the most densely populated areas.
  • In the desert region, the great desert extends from the edge  of the Rann of Kuch to beyond Luni river Northward, comprises Rajasthan Sind frontiers. The little desert extends from the Luni and present between Jaisalmer and Jodhpur. Between the great and the little desert lies a zone of absolutely sterile country, consisting of Rocky land cut up by lime-stone ridgs.
  • The Peninsular region is flanked by Eastern Ghats with an average elevation of 610 m & Western Ghats with an average elevation of 915 to 1,220 m. Between Eastern Ghats and Bay of Bengal, there is a broader coastal area between the Western Ghats and Arabian Sea.
  • The Southern point of plateau is formed by the Nilgiri Hills where the eastern and the western ghats meet. The Cardamom hills lying are regarded as a continuation of the Western Ghats.\
  • Himalayan rivers are formed by the melting snow and glaciers, therefore, they are perennial and prone to floods during the monsoon months.
  • The largest man-made lake in India is Indira Sagar Lake, which  is the reservoir of Sardar Sarovar Project, Onkareshwar Project and Maheshwar Project in Gujarat-MP.
  • Chilka Lake (Orissa) is the largest brackish water lake of India. It is also, the largest lake of India.
  • Wular Lake (J & K) is the largest fresh water lake of India. Dal Lake is also there in J & K.
  • From Sambhar and Didwana Lake (Rajasthan), salt is produced.
  • Other important lakes are Vembanad in Kerala and Kolleru & Pulicat in AP.
  • METHODS OF IRRIGATION IN INDIA
  • There are four major means of irrigation in India.
  1.  Canals: The states where canals are found mostly are : Punjab, U.P., Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu.
  • Canals are of three types-(1) Inundation with supply water in times of flood (ii) Storage-water is stored and than diverted (iii) Perennial-which flow throughout the year.
  1.  Wells: Punjab, U.P. etc.
  2.  Tubewells: Punjab, U.P., Tamil Nadu.

World at a Glance

Area and Depths of Oceans

Ocean (With Seas communicating with it)

Area (Thousand square kilometer)

% age (of the depth Entire area of World Ocean

(in metre)

Location of Maximum Depth

Depth

Mean

Maxi

1

2

3

4

5

6

Pacific

Ocean

179679

50

4028

11776

Mariana Trench

Atlantic

Ocean

92544

25

3926

9460

Puerto Rico Trench

Indian

Ocean

74917

21

3897

7725*

Java Trench

Arctic

Ocean

13919

04

1205

5449

Nansen’s Trough

World

Ocean

361059

100

3795

1176

-

 There is available information on the existence of a depth of 8047 metre West of Australia at the point of 32* South Latitude.

 Principal Seas

Sea

Area (in sq. km.)

Average Depth

(in metre)

South China Sea

2974600

1200

Caribbean Sea

2753000

2400

Mediterranean Sea

2503000

1485

Bering Sea

2268180

1400

Gulf of Mexico

1542985

1500

East China Sea

1249450

180

Sea of Japan

1007500

1370

Black Sea

461980

1100

Red Sea

437700

490

Baltic Sea

422160

55

Important Straits

Straits

Water Bodies Joined

Area

Bab-al-Mandeb

Red Sea & Arabian Sea

Alaska & Africa

Bering

Arctic Ocean & Bering Sea

Alaska & Asia

Bosphorus

Black Sea & Marmara Sea

Turkey

Dover

North Sea & Atlantic Ocean

England & Europe

Florida

Gulf of Mexico & Atlantic Ocean

Florida & Bahamas Islands

Gibralter

Mediterranean Sea & Atlantic Ocean

Spain & Africa

Malacca

Java Sea & Bay of Bengal

India & Indonesia

Palk

Bay of Bengal & Indian Ocean

Indian & Sri Lanka

Gellan

South Pacific & South Atlantic Ocean

Chile

Biggest and Smallest Countries

Biggest Nations

(Area-Wise)

Biggest Nations

(Population-Wise)

Smallest Nations

(Area-Wise)

Smallest Nations

(Population-Wise)

Russia

China

Vatican City

Vatican City

Canada

India

Monaca

Tuvalu

China

USA

Nauru

Nauru

USA

Indonesia

Tuvalu

Palau

Brazil

Brazil

San Marino

San Marino

Australia

Pakistan

Liechtenstein

Monaco

India

Bangladesh

Marshall Islands

Liechtenstein

Argentina

Nigeria

Saint Kitts & Nevis

Saint Kitts & Nevis

Kazakhastan

Russia

Maldives

Antigua & Barbados

Sudan

Japan

Malta

Dominica

Great Deserts

Desert

Country

Area in thousand

Sq.km

Sahara

North Africa

8400

Australian

Australia

1550

Arabian

Arabia

1300

Gobi

Mongolia, China

1040

Klahari

Botswana

520

Takla-Makan

China

320

Kara Kum

Turkmenistan

272

Thar

North-West India

260

Sonoran

USA, Mexico

310

Atacama

North Chile

180

Principal Mountain Peaks

Name

Country

Height (in Metre)

Mt. Everest*

Nepal-Tibet

8850

Mt. Godwin Austin (K2)

India (POK)

8611

Kanchanjunga

India

8597

Nanaga Parbat

India

8124

Annapurna

Nepal

8078

Nanda Devi

India

7817

Mt. Kamet

India

7756

Saltoro Kangri

India

7742

Gurla Mandhata

Tibet

7728

Tirich Mir

Pakistan

7700

  • Mt. Everest is known as Mi-ti-gu-ti-cha-pu-long-na in Tibeten, Sagarmatha in Nepalese and Qomolangma-feng in Chinese.

Highest Water Falls

Water Fall

Location

River

 

Angel

Venezuela

Tributary of Caroni

1,000

Tugela

Netal, South Africa

Tugela

914

Cuquenan

Venezuela

Cuquenan

610

Sutherland

South Island, Nz

Arthur

580

Takkakaw

British Columbia

Tributory of Yoho

503

Ribbon (Yosemite)

California

Greek flowing into Yosemite

491

Upper Yosemite

California

Yosemite Greek tributary of Merced

436

Gavarnie

South-West France

Gave de pau

422

Vettisfoss

Norway

Morkedola

366

Windows Tears

(Yosemite)

California

Tributory of Merced

357

Longest Rivers

River

Source

Outflow

 

Nile

Tributories of Lake Victoria, Africa

Mediterranian Sea

6,670

Amazon

Glacier-fed lakes, Paru

Atlantic Ocean

6,4487/

6750

Mississippi

Missouri Red Rock

Source of Red Rock, Monta

 

6,240

Yang-tse-kiang

Tibetan Plateau, China

China Sea

5,797

Ob

Altai Mts. USSR (now CIS)

Gulf of Ob

5,567

Yellow (Huango Ho)

Eastern part of Kunian Mts., West China

Gulf of Ob

4,667

Yenisei

Tannu-ola Mts. Western Tuva, USSR (now CIS)

Arctic Ocean

4,506

Parana

Confluence of Paranaiba and Grande rivers

Riode la Plata

4,498

Irish

Altai Mts. USSR (now CIS)

Ob River

4,438

Congo

Confluence of Lualaba and Luapula rivers, Zaire

Atlantic Ocean

4,371

Major Riverside Cities

City

River

Country

Alexanderia

Nile

Egypt

Amsterdam

Amsel

Netherlands

Antwerp

Scheldt

Belgium

Baghdad

Tigris

Iraq

Bangkok

Menam

Thailand

Belgrade

Danube

Yugoslavia

Berlin

Spree

Germany

Born

Rhine

Germany

Bristol

Avon

England

Budapest

Danube

Hungary

Cairo

Nile

Egypt

Canton

Canton

China

Chittagong

Kanapkuli

Bangladesh

Chung king

Yang-tse-kiang

China

Cologne

Rhine

Germany

Glasgow

Clyde

Scottland

Hull

Humber

England

Hamburg

Eibe

Germany

Karachi

Indus

Pakistan

Khartoum

Blue and White Nile

Sudan

Lahore

Ravi

Pakistan

Lisbon

Tagus

Portugal

Liverpool

Mersey

England

London

Thames

England

Montreal

Ottawa

Canada

Moscow

Moskava

Russia

Nanking

Yang-tse-kiang

China

New Orieans

Mississippi

USA

New York

Hudson

USA

Paris

Seine

France

Philadelphia

Delaware

USA

Quebec

St. Lawrence

Canada

Rangoon

Irrawady

Burma

Rome

Tiber

Italy

Shanghai

Yang-tse-kiang

China

Tokyo

Sumida

Japan

Vienna

Danube

Austria

Warsaw

Vistula

Poland

Washington

Potamac

USA

Geographical Surnames

Surname

Actual Name

Surname

Actual Name

Bengal’s Sorrow

Damodar River

Key to the Mediterranean

Gilbraltar

Blue Mountains

Nilgiri Hills

Land of Cakes

Scotland

City of Sky-scrapers

New York

Land of Golden Fieece

Australia

City of Seven Hills

Rome

Land of Maple Leaf

Canada

 

City of Dreaming Spires

Oxford

Land of Morning Calm

Korea

City of Palaces

Kolkata

Land of Midnight Sun

Norway

City of Golden Gate

San Francisco

Land of the Thousand Lakes

Finland

City of Magnificient

Buildings

Washington D.C.

Land of the Thunderbolt

Bhutan

City of Eternal

Springs

Quito (S. America)

Land of the White Elephant

Thailand

China’s Sorrow

Hwang Ho

Land of Five Rivers

Punjab

Cockpit of Europe

Belgium

Land of Thousand

Elephants

Laos

Dark Continent

Africa

Land of Rising Sun

Japan

Emerald Isle

Ireland

Loneliest Island

Tristan De Gunha

(Mid-Atlantic)

Eternal City

Rome

Manchester of Japan

Osaka

Empire City

New York

Pillars of Hercules

Strait of Gibraltar

Forbidden City

Lhasa (Tibet)

Pearl of the Antilles

Cuba

Garden City

Chicago

Playground of Europe

Switzerland

Gate of Tears

Strait of Bab-ei-Mandeb

Quaker City

Philadelphia

Gateway of India

Mumbai

Queen of the Adriatic

Venice

Gift of the Nile

Egypt

Roof of the World

The Pamirs, Central Asia

Granite City

Aberdeen

Rose Pink City

Jaipur

Hermit Kingdom

Korea

Sugar bowl of the world

Cuba

Herring Pond

Atlantic Ocean

Venice of the North

Stockholm

Holy Land

Jerusalem

Windy City

Chicago

Island Continent

Australia

Whiteman’s grave

Guinea Coast of Africa

Island of Cloves

Zanzibar

Yellow River

Huang Ho (China)

Isle of Pearls

Bahrein

 

 

Superlative of the World

Tallest Animal

Giraffe

Largest Archipelago

Indonesia

Fastest Bird

Swift

Largest Bird

Ostrich

Smallest Bird

Humming Bird

Longest Railway Bridge

Huey P.Long Bridge, Louisiana (U.S.A)

Tallest Building

Buri Dubai, UAE

Longest Irrigational Canal

The Kalakumsky canal

Longest canal

Suez canal

Highest Capital

La Paz (Bolivia)

Biggest City (Area)

Mount Isa (Australia)

Largest City (Population)

Tokyo

Costliest City

Tokyo

Highest City

Van Chuan (China)

Largest Continent

Asia

Smallest Continent

Australia

Biggest Country (Area)

Russia

Largest Country (Population)

China

Largest Country (Electrorate)

India

Largest Creature

Blue whale

Largest Delta

Sunderban (Bangladesh & India)

Largest Desert (World)

Sahara (Africa)

Largest Desert (Asia)

Gobi

Largest Dam

Grand Coulee Dam (U.S.A.)

Highest Dam

Hoover Dam (U.S.A.)

Largest Diamond

The Cullinan

Largest Dome

Astrodome, in Housten (U.S.A.)

Largest Epic

Mahabharat

Largest Irrigation Scheme

Lloyd Barrage, Sukkhur (Pakistan)

Largest Island

Greenland

Largest Sea

Mediterranean sea

Deepest Lake

Bikal (Siberia)

Largest Lake (Artificial)

Lake Mead (Boulder Dam)

Highest Lake

Titicaca (Bolivia)

Largest Lake (Fresh Water)

Superior

Largest Lake (Salt water)

Caspian

Largest Library

United States Library of Congress, Washington D.c.

Highest Mountain Peak

Everest (Nepal)

Longest Mountain Range

Andes (S.America)

Largest Museum

British Museum, London

Largest Ocean

Pacific

Biggest Palace

Vatican (Italy)

Largest Park

Yellow Stone National Park (U.S.A.)

Largest peninsula

Arabia

Coldest Place (Habitated)

Verkhoyansk (Siberia)

Dryest place

Iqique (in Atacama Desert, Chile)

Hottest Place

Azizia (Libya, Africa)

Rainiest Place

Mausinram (Meghalaya, India)

Biggest Planet

Jupiter

Brightest Planet

Venus

Smallest Planet

Mercury

Highest Plateau

Pamir (Tibet)

Longest Platform

Kharagpur (India)

Longest Railway

Trans-Siberian railway

Largest Railway Station

Grand Central Terminal, Chicago (U.S.A.)

Longest River

Nile (Africa)

Largest River

Amazon (S.America)

Largest  Sea-bird

Albatross

Brightest Star

Sirius

Tallest Statue

Statue of Motherland, Volgagrad (Russia)

Largest Radio Telescope

New Mexico (U.S.A.)

World’s first Tramway

New York

Longest Tunnel (Rilway)

Tanna (Japan)

Longest Tunnel (road)

Mont Blanc Tunnel between France and Itlay

Highest Volcano

Ojos del Salado (Andes, Ecuador).

Most ActiveVolcano

Maunaloa (Hawaii-U.S.A.)

Longest Wall

Great Wall of China

Highest Waterfall

Angel (Venezuela)

Lowest Water body

Dead Sea

Largest Zoo

Kruger National Park, South Africa

 India at a Glance

Mountain Peaks

S.No

Peak

Height

1.

K2

8611 in Pak-occupied territory

2.

Kanchanjangha

8598

3.

Nanga Parvat

8126

4.

Gasher Brum

8068 in Pak-occupied territory

5.

Broad peak

8047 in Pak-occupied territory

6.

Disteghilsar

7885 in Pak-occupied territory

7.

Masher Brum E

7821

8.

Nanda Devi

7817

9.

Masher Brum W

7806 in Pak-occupied territory

10.

Rakapsohi

7788 in Pak-occupied territory

Important Rivers

S.No

Rivers

Length

1.

Indus

2,900

2.

Brahamputra

2,900

3.

Ganga

2,510

4.

Godavari

1,450

5.

Narmada

1,290

6.

Krishna

1,290

7.

Mahanadi

890

8.

Kaveri

760

 Major Riverside Cities

City

River

State

Agra

Yamuna

U.P.

Ahmedabad

Sabarmati

Gujarat

Ayodhya

Saryu

U.P.

Badrinath

Ganges

Uttarakhand

Kolkata

Hooghly

West Bengal

Cuttak

Mahanadi

Orissa

Delhi

Yamuna

Delhi

Dilrugrah

Bramhaputra

Assam

Ferozpur

Sutlej

Punjab

Guwahati

Bramhaputra

Assam

Hardwar

Ganges

Uttrakhand

Hyderabad

Musi

Andhra Pradesh

Jabalpur

Narmada

M.P.

Kanpur

Ganges

U.P.

Kota

Chambal

Rajasthan

Lucknow

Gomti

U.P.

Ludhiana

Sutlej

Punjab

Nasik

Godawari

Maharashtra

Pandharpur

Bhima

Maharashtra

Patna

Ganga

Bihar

Sambalpur

Mahanadi

Orissa

Srinagar

Jhelum

J & K.

Surat

Tapti

Gujarat

Tiruchirapalli

Kaveri

Tamil Nadu

Varanasi

Ganges

U.P.

Vijaywada

Krishna

Andhra Pradesh

Tiger Reserves

Tiger Reserve

State

Bandipur

Karnataka

Corbett

Uttarakhand

Kanha

Madhya Pradesh

Manas

Assam

Melghat

Maharashtra

Palamau

Jharkhand

Ranthambhore

Rajasthan

Similipal

Orissa

Sunderbans

West Bengal

Periyar

Kerala

Sariska

Rajasthan

Buxa

West Bengal

Indravati

Chattisgarh

Nagarjunsagar

Andhra Pradesh

Namadapha

Arunachal Pradesh

Dudhwa

Uttar Pradesh

Kalakad-Mundanthurai

Tamil Nadu

Valmiki

Bihar

Pench

Madhya Pradesh

Todaba-Andhari

Maharashtra

Bandhavgarh

Madhya Pradesh

Panna

Madhya Pradesh

Dampha

Mizoram

Bhadra

Karnataka

Pench

Maharashtra

Pakhui-Nameri

Arunachal Pradesh-Assam

Bori, Satpura, Pachmari

Madhya Pradesh

Nagarhole

Karnataka

Katarniaghat

Uttar Pradesh

Nameri

Assam

Kaziranga

Assam

Wild Life Sancturies and National Parks

S.No

Name

State

1.

Achanakmar Sanctuary, Bilaspur

Chhattisgarh

2.

Bandhipur National Park, Mysore

Karnataka

3.

Bhimbandh Wild Life Sanctuary, Mongher

Bihar

4.

Borivilli National Park, Mumbai

Maharashtra

5.

Chandraprabha Sanctuary, Varanasi

U.P.

6.

Corbett National Park, Nainital

Uttarakhand

7.

Cottigao Game Sanctuary, Varanasi

Goa

8.

Dachigam Sanctuary, Srinagar

J & K.

9.

Darrah Wild Life Sanctuary, Kota

Rajasthan

10.

Dndeli Sanctuary, Dharwar

Karnataka

11.

Dudhwa National Park, Lkhimpur Khiri

U.P.

12.

Ghana Bird Sanctuary, Bharatpur

Rajasthan

13.

Gandhi Sagar Sanctuary, Mandsaur

Madhya Pradesh

14.

Gir National Park, Junagarh

Gujarat

15.

Hazaribagh Sanctuary, Hazaribagh

Jharkhand

16.

Intangki Sanctuary, Kohima

Nagaland

17.

Jaldapara Sanctuary, Jalpaiguri

W. Bengal

18.

Kanha National Park, Mandla and Balaghat

Madhya Pradesh

19.

Kaziranga National Park, Jorhat

Assam

20.

Khang Chanzanda National Park, Gangtok

Sikkim

21.

Manas Sanctuary, Barpeta

Assam

22.

Mudumali Sanctuary, Nilgiris

Tamil Nadu

23.

Mukambika Sanctuary, South Canara

Karnatka

24.

Nagerhole National Park, Coorg

Karnataka

25.

Nawegaon National Park, Bhandare

Maharashtra

26.

Parambikulam Sanctuary, Palaghat

Kerala

27.

Pench National Park,  Nagpur

Maharashtra

28.

Periyar Sanctuary, Idukki

Kerala

29.

Ranthambore Tiger Project, Sawai Madhopur

Rajasthan

30.

Rohina National Park, Kulu

Himachal Pradesh

31.

Sariska Sanctuary, Alwar

Rajasthan

32.

Shivpuri National Park, Shivpuri

Madhya Pradesh

33.

Similipal Sanctuary, Mayurbhanj

Orissa

34.

Sunderbans Tiger Reserve, 24 pargana

W. Bengal

35.

Tadoba National Park, Chandrapur

Maharashtra

36.

Tungbhadra Sanctuary, Bellary

Karnataka

37.

Valvadar National Park, Bhavnagar

Gujarat

38.

Wayned Sanctuary, Cannanore, Kozhikode

Kerala

Major Hill Stations

Hill Station

State

Almora

Uttarakhand

Coonoor

Tamil Nadu

Darjeeling

West Bengal

Kalimpong

West Bengal

Kodai Kanal

Tamil Nadu

Lansdowne

Uttarakhand

Mt. Abu

Rajasthan

Mussoorie

Uttarakhand

Ootacamund

Tamil Nadu

Ranchi

Jharkhand

Shimla

Himachal Pradesh

Shillong

Meghalaya

Cherrapunji

Meghalaya

Dalhousie

Himachal Pradesh

Gulmarg

Kashmir

Kasauli

Himachal Pradesh

Kulu Valley

Himachal Pradesh

Mahabaleswar

Maharashtra

Mukteshwar

U.P.

Nainital

Uttarakhand

Panchmarhi

M.P.

Srinagar

Kashmir

Major Hydroelectric Projects

Project

State and River

Bhakra Nangal Project

On Satluj in Punjab. Highest in India. Ht 226 m. Reservoir is called Gobind Sagar Lake.

Mandi Project

On Beas in HP.

Chambai Valley Project

On Chambal in MP & Rajasthan.

3 dams are there: Gandhi Sagar Dam, Rana Pratap sagar Dam and Jawahar Sagar dam.

Damodar Valley Project

On Damodar in Bihar. Based on Tennessee Valley Project, USA.

Hirakund

On Mahanadi in Orissa. World’s longest dam: 4801m

Rihand

On Son in Mirzapur. Reservoir is called Govind Vallabh Pant reservoir.

Kosi Project

On Kosi in N.Bihar.

Mayurkashi Project

On Mayurkashi in WB.

Kakrapara Project

On Tapi in Gujarat.

Nizamsagar Project

On Manjra in AP.

Nagarjuna Sagar Project

On Krishna in AP

Tungabhadra

On Tungabhadra in AP & Karnataka.

Shivasamudram Project

On Cauvery in Karnataka

Tata Hydel Scheme

On Bhima in Maharashtra

Sharavathi Hydel Project

On Jog Falls in Karnataka.

Kundah & Periyar Project

In TN.

Farakka Project

On Ganga in WB. Apart from power and irrigation it helps to remove silt for easy navigation.

Ukai Project

On Tapti in Gujarat.

Mahi Project

On Mahi in Gujarat.

Salal Project

On Chenab in J&K.

Mata Tila Multipurpose Project

On Betwa in UP & MP.

Thein Project

On Ravi, Punjab.

Pong Dam

On Beas, Punjab.

Principal Ports

Port

State

Alleppey

Kerala

Bhavnagar

Gujarat

Kolkata

W. Bengal

Cochin

Kerala

Dhanushkodi

Tamil Nadu

Chennai

Tamil Nadu

Paradeep

Orissa

Surat

Gujarat

Vishakhapatanam

Andhra Pradesh

Porbandar

Gujarat

Haldia

W. Bengal

Bhatkal

Karnataka

Mumbai

Maharashtra

Culicut

Kerala

Cuddalor

Tamil Nadu

Kandla

Gujarat

Manglore

Karnataka

Quilon

Kerala

Tuticorin

Tamil Nadu

Marmagoa

Goa

Kozhikode

Kerala

Nhava Sheva

Maharashtra

Ennore

Tamil Nadu

Superlatives of India

Longest river

Ganges

Longest tributary river of India

Yamuna

Longest river of the south

Godavari

Highest mountain peak

Godwin Austin (K3)

Largest Lake (Fresh water)

Wular lake (Kashmir)

Highest Dam

Bhakra Dam (Punjab)

Largest Mosque

Jama Masjid, Delhi

Longest Road

Grand Trunk Road

State with longest coastline

Gujarat

Longest railway route

From Jammu to Kanya Kumari

Longest tunnel

Jawahar tunnel (Jammu & Kashmir)

Longest national highway

NH-7 from Varanasi to Kanyakumari

Longest Dam

Hirakud Dam (Orissa)

Longest River Bridge

Mahatma Gandhi Setu, Patna

Largest populated City

Mumbai (1.60 crore)

Largest Museum

National Museum, Kolkata

Largest Delta

Sunderban Delta, W. Bengal

Largest Dome

Gol Gumbaz, Bijapur (Karnataka)

Largest Zoo

Zoological Gardens, Alipur, Kolkata

Largest man-made Lake

Govind Vallabh Pant Sagar (Rihand Dam)

Largest Desert

Thar (Rajasthan)

Highest Tower

Pitampura Tower, Delhi

Smallest State (Area)

Goa

Smallest State (Population)

Sikkim

Highest Waterfall

Gersoppa waterfall (Karnataka)

Longest Electric railway line

From Delhi to Kolkata via Patna

Densest populated State

West Bengal

Largest cave temple

Kailash temple, Ellora (Maharashtra)

Largest animal Fair

Sonepur (Bihar)

Highest Gateway

Buland Darwaza, Fatehpur Sikri (Agra)

Biggest Hotel

Oberai-Sheraton (Mumbai)

Largest State (Area)

Rajasthan

Largest State (Population)

Uttar Pradesh

Place of heaviest rainfall

Mausinram (Meghalaya)

Largest corridor

Rameshwaram temple corridor (TN)

Largest cantilever span bridge

Howrah Bridge (Kolkata)

Largest Forest state

M.P.

Highest straight gravity Dam

Bhakra Dam

Longest Railway Platform

Kharagpur (W. Bengal)

Largest Stadium

Salt lake (Yuva Bharti), Kolkata

Largest Port

Mumbai

Highest Lake

Devatal (Garhwal)

Largest Lake (Saline water)

Chilka lake, Orissa

Highest Award

Bharat Ratna

Highest Gallantry Award

Paramveer Chakra

Largest Gurudwara

Golden Temple, Amritsar

Deepest river valley

Bhagirathi & Alaknanda

State with longest coastline of South India

Andhra Pradesh

Longest river which forms estuary

Narmada

Largest Church

Saint Cathedral (Goa)

Longest Beach

Marina Beach, Chennai

Highest Battle field

Siachin Glacier

Highest Airport

Leh (Laddakh)

Largest river island

Majuli (Brahmaputra river, Asom)

Largest Planetarium

Birla Planetarium (Kolkata)

Famous Sites

Site

Location

Ajanta

Aurangabad

Amarnath Cave

Kashmir

Ambar Palace

Jaipur (Raj.)

Anand Bhawan

Allahabad

Birla Planetorium

Kolkata

Black Pagoda

Konark (Orissa)

Bodhisatva

Ajanta Caves

Brihdeshwar Temple

Tanjore

Brindaban Gardens

Mysore

Buland Darwaza

Fatehpur Sikri

Chenna Kesava Temple

Belur

Char Minar

Hyderabad

Chilka Lake

E. Coast of India near Bhubaneshwar

Dal Lake

Srinagar

Dilwara Temples

Mt. Abu (Raj.)

Elephanta Caves

Mumbai

Ellora Caves

Aurangabad

Gateway of India

Mumbai

Golden Temple

Amritsar

Hanging Gardens

Mumbai

Gol Gumbaz

Bijapur

Howrah Bridge

Kolkata

Hawa Mahal

Jalpur

Jagannath Temple

Puri

Jai Stambha (Tower of Victory)

Chittorgarh

Jahaz Mahal

Mandu

Jantar Mantar

New Delhi

Jog (Gersoppa) Falls

Karnataka

Kailash Temple

Ellora

Kanya Kumari Temple

Cape Cmarin

Khajuraho

Chhatarpur

Konark

Puri

Lingaraj Temple

Bhubaneshwar

Laxmi Vilas Palace

Baroeda

Mahakaleshwar

Ujjain

Lal Bagh Garden

Bengaluru

Marble Rock

Jabalpur

Malabar Hills

Mumbai

Mt. Girnar

Jungarah

Minakshi Temple

Nadurai

Nishat Bagh

Srinagar

Natraja

Chennai

Pichola Lake

Udaipur

Panch Mahal

Fatehpur Sikri

Raj Ghat

Delhi

Qutub Minar

Delhi

Sanchi Stupa

Sanchi (Bhopal)

Red Fort

Delhi

Shalimar Bagh

Srinagar

Sarnath

Varanasi

Staue of Gomateshwar

Karnataka

Shantivan

Delhi

Sun Temple

Konark

Taj Mahal

Agra

Tirupati Temple

Andra Pradesh

Tower of Silence

Mumbai

Veer Bhumi

Delhi

Victoria Garden

Mumbai

Victoria Memorial

Kolkata

Shakti Sthal

Delhi

Vijai Ghat

Delhi

Popular Folk Dances of Different States

States

Folk Dances

Andhra Pradesh

Ghanta Mardala, Vedehi Natakam, Burrakattra

Bihar

Jatan-Jatin, Gadur Chhau, Katha-Putti, Karma, Natna, Gatna Bakho, Samochkwa, Ghijhiya

Chhattisgarh

Suadana, Karma, Danda or Rahas, Raut, Sarhul, Bar, Naacha, Gharia-Baja, anthi.

Gujarat

Raslila, Garba, Dandiya, Ganpati

Goa

Talagadi, Golf, Shigmo, Corridin-bo, Tongamel, Masalkhel, Dhakto.

Haryana

Jhoomer, Daph, Loor, Phag, Dhamal

Himachal Pradesh

Rasleela, Bhangda, Nati, Gurkholi

Jharkhand

Jadur, Gaima Magh, Sarhoot, Ahandi Kola, Yakshgana, Suggi Kunita

Maharashtra

Mauni, Lavani, Lezim, Dahikala, Dasaratar, Tanassa, Gafa, Katha Keertan.

Orissa

Chadye, Chhah Ghumar, Sandur, Davdanata

Poducherry

Poorakalli, Kolkalli, Kollattum, Mascarda

Rajasthan

Ghumar, Panihari, Ghapaal, Dandiya, Tera Tali, Shankarai, Ruf, Gopikaleela

Uttar Pradesh

Karan, Kajli, Rasleela, Jatta, Thali, Jaita, Chhapeli, Nautanki

Uttarakhand

Thadya, Jagor, Chchri, Jhumilo, Chauphula

Jammu & Kashmir

Rauf, Chakri, Bhakhageet, Hikat

Mizoram

Cherokan, Phakulia

Meghalaya

Bangla

Kerala

Padyani, Thulal, Bhadrakali, Tampatrikali, Kudiattam, Mohiniattam, Kaliattam, kekutti, Kalali

Nagaland

Kumi Naga, Chong, Khaiva, Nooralim, Lim, Rengmanag

Lakshdweep

Parichkoli

Asom

Rakhel, Bihu, Dhol, Maharaas, Boisaju, Jhumura

Arunachal Pradesh

Mukhauta, Yudhyhratya

West Bengal

Laya, Ghambheera, Baul, Kathi

Popular Temples of Different States

States

Names of temples

Andhra Pradesh

1. Sri Ram Temple, Bhadrachalam; 2. Narsingh Temple, Ahobalam; 3. Shiv Temple, Lopakshi; 4. Mallikarjun Temple, Srisailam; 5. Kala Hastishwar Temple, Kalahasti

Asom

1.Harjagriv Madhav Temple, Hajo; 2. Uma Nand Temple, Guqahati; 3. Navgarh Temple, Guwahati; 4. Janardhan Temple, Guwahati

Bihar

1.Kolgenda’s Temple. Bhagalpur; 2. Jal Mandir, Pavapidi; 3. Harmindir, Patna; 4. Mahabodhi Temple, Bodhgaya; 5. Vishnupad Temple, Gaya; 6. Jain Temple, Vaishali

Delhi

1.Laxmi Narayan Temple

Goa

1.Shri Shanta Durga Temple; 2. Saptakoteshwar Temple; 3.Sri Mangesh Temple

Gujarat

1.Kirti Temple, Porbandar; 2.Sudama Temple, Porbandar; 3. Sun Temple, Modhara; 4. Hathi Singh Temple, Ahmedabad; 5. Jain Temple, Junagarh, Girnar Parvat; 6. Simnath Temple, Prabhash; 7. Kirti Temple, Vadodara; 8. Dwarikadheesh Temple, Dwarika; 9. Rukmani Temple, Dwarka

Haryana

1.Laxminarayan Temple, Kurukshetra; 2. Sita Temple, Kurukshetra

Jammu-Kashmir

1.Raghunath Mandir, Jammu; 2.Ship Khori, Jammu; 3. Amarnath Temple, Kashmir

Karnataka

1.Ganga Dhareshwar Temple, Bangalaru; 2. Nandi bell Temple, Bangaluru; 3. Hajarnama Temple, Hampi; 4. Pattaviram Temple, Hample; 5. Gomateshwar Temple, Shravanbelgola; 6. Hoyaleshwar Temple, Helbid; 7. Kedareshwar Temple, Helbid; 8. Chennakeshav Temple, Bellur; 9. Nandi Temple, Mysore; 10. Sri Rangnath Temple, Sri Rangpattanam

Kerala

1.Guhanath Temple, Travancore; 2.Schindram Temple, Travancore; 3. Chandranath Jain Temple, Mudhravidi; 4. Sri Koel Temple, Trikathimanam; 5. Padmanabh Swami Temple, Trivandrum

Madhya Pradesh

1.Gopal Temple, Ujjain; 2. Mahakaleshwar Temple, Ujjain; 3. Laxminarayan Temple, Bhopal; 4. Kanch Temple, Indore; 5. Geeta Temple, Indore; 6. Neelkanth Mahadev Temple, Mandu; 7. Chausathyogi Temple, Khaujuraho; 8. Kandriya Mahadev Temple, Khajuraho; 9. Vishvanath & Nandi Temple, Khajuraho; 10. Parshav Temple, Khajuraho; 11. Ghantri Temple, Khajuraho; 12. Brahma Temple, Khajuraho; 13. Matangeswar and Varah Temple, Khajuraho; 14. Jagdamba Temple, Khajuraho

Maharashtra

1.Kailash Temple, Ajanta; 2. Mahalaxmi Temple, Mumbai; 3. Sai Baba Temple, Sirdi; 4. Ate BaleshwaR Temple, Mahabaleshwar; 5. Sundar Narayan Temple, Nasik; 6. Triyambak Temple, Nasi; 7. Amba Temple, Kolhapur

Manipur

1.Shri Govind Temple, Koina;

Orissa

1.Sun Temple, Konarke; 2. Sakshi Temple, Puri; 3. Jagannath Temple, Puri; 4. Lingraj Temple, Bhuvneshwar; 5. Brahmeshwar Temple, Bhuvneshwar; 6. Parshurameshwar Temple, Bhuvneshwar

Punjab

1.Dera Baba Nanak Temple, Amritsar; 2. Dasmtal Temple, Pathankot; 3. Swarn Temple, Amritsar; 4. Durgiyana Temple, Amritsar

Rajasthan

1.Charmukh Temple, Udaipur; 2. Govinddevji Temple, Jaipur; 3. Jagdish Mandir, Udaipur; 4. Achleswar Temple, Mt. Abu; 5. Jain Temple, Jisalmer; 6. Rangvadi Temple, Kota; 7. Brahma Temple, Pushkar (Ajmer); 8. Kaila Devi Temple, Karauli; 9. Dilwara’s Jain Mandir, Mt. Abu

Tamil Nadu

1.Taj Temple, Mahabalipuram; 2. Parthsarthi Temple, Chennai; 3. Natraj Temple, Chidambram; 4. Meenakshi Temple, Madurai; 5. Vrihdeshwar Temple, Tanjaur; 6. Kanya Kumari Temple, Kanyakumari; 7. Sri Vardrajan Temple, Kanchipuram

Uttar Pradesh

1.Bhitergoan’s Temple, Kanpur; 2. Dasawatar Tampel, Jhansi; 3. Geeta Temple, Mathura; 4. Tulsi Manas Temple, Varanasi; 5. Rishabhdev Temple, Ayodhya; 6. Dwarika dheesh Temple, Mathura; 7. Sri Ram Janam Bhumi, Ayodhya; 8. Banke Bihari

Uttarakhand

1.Kesar Devi Temple, Almora; 2. Kalika Temple, Ranikhet