Coding-Decoding Tests

CODING-DECODING TESTS

A code is a ‘system of signals'. Coding can be used to send secret messages. Coding is to convert the message into some signals & Decoding is to convert it into the original form.

In this type of tests, secret messages, etc. are given in code which has to be deciphered or decoded. In other words, letters or alphabets do not stand for themselves but for some other letters i.e., they have an artificial or code value. These artificial or code values are given according to some set principle or pattern which can be easily found by the candidate. By applying the same principle, the candidate can decode the coded word.

Types of Coding / Decoding

TYPE 1: Letter Coding

In these questions, the real alphabets in a word are replaced by certain other alphabets according to a specific rule to form its code. The candidate is required to detect the common rule and answer the questions accordingly. In this, certain letters of alphabet stand for certain other letters or alphabet. For example, if LOVE is coded as MPWF, what will be the code for WAR? In this each letter is replaced by its following letter, i.e., L by M, O by P and so on. So the code for WAR will be XBS.

Case I. Coding by shifting letters

Form1: Forward Sequence Pattern

Example:       If MADRAS is coded as LZCQZR. How is BOMBAY coded in that code?

(a) ANLAZX

(b) ALNAZX

(c) CPOCBZ

(d) CQOCBZ

(e) None of these

 

Answer:         ANLAZX

Explanation: Now you can see that in the above example each letter in the word MADRAS is moved one step backward to obtain the corresponding letter of the code. M is coded as L, A is coded as Z and so on.

 So code for

B O M B A Y is

A N L A Z X

 Example:      If in a certain language MYSTIFY is coded as NZTUJGZ, how is NEMESIS coded in that language?

(a) MDLHRDR

(b) OFNFTJT           

(c) ODNHTDR        

(d) PGOKUGU

Answer:         Clearly, each letter in the word MYSTIFY is moved one step forward to obtain the corresponding letter of the code.

So, in NEMESIS, N will be coded as O, E as F , M as N and so on. Thus, the code becomes OFNFTJT.

Hence, the answer is (b).

Form2: Backward Sequence Pattern

Example:       If T A P is coded as S Z O Then code: F R E E Z E

Answer:         E Q D D Y D

Letters may be moved alternately one step forward & one step backward or vice - versa. In this case the each letter in the word is moved one step backwards.

Example:      If in a certain language CARROM is coded as BZQQNL, which word will be coded as HOUSE?

(a) IPVTF      

(b) GNTRD    

(c) INVRF     

(d) GPTID     

(e) FNSRC

Answer:         Each letter of the word is one step ahead of the corresponding letter of the code.

So, H is coded as I, O as P, U as V, S as T and E as F i.e., HOUSE is coded as IPVTF.

Hence, the answer is (a).

Form 3: Skipped Sequence Pattern

Example:      If ‘BEAT’ is coded as ‘EHDW’, how will you code for ‘ROAD’?

  1. URDG 
  2. UREG 
  3. TQCF 
  4. SQCF

Answer:       Here codes are formed by skipping two letters; code for ‘ROAD’ is ‘URDG’.

Case II: Coding by Analogy

Here codes are based on the analogy given in the question itself

Example:      If ‘MSGPQ’ stands for ‘TRACE’ then how will you code ‘ACE’?

  1. MSG 
  2. SGP 
  3. GPQ 
  4. PQM

Answer:       ‘TRACE’ has been coded as ‘MSGPQ’. You will see that all the letters in the word ‘ACE’ are also there in the word ‘TRACE’. Hence choose the relevant code letters from the code ‘MSGPQ’. Thus A becomes G, C becomes P and E becomes Q. Therefore ‘ACE’ will be coded as ‘GPQ’.

Case III: Coding by reversing letters

Example:      If ‘RAILIMAF’ stand for ‘FAMILIAR’, how will you code ‘NAMELY’?

  1. YELMAN 
  2. YLEAMN 
  3. YLEMNA 
  4. YLEMAN

Answer:       Code is the reverse of the given word. The answer is YLEMAN which is the reverse of NAMELY.

 Case IV: Mixed Coding

Example: If in a certain language ‘ENCOURAGE’ is coded as ‘PDOFVFHBS’, what will be the code for ‘ACHIEVE’?

 

  1. HDBJFRF
  2. BDIJFWF
  3. IDBJFWF
  4. DBJIFWF

Answer:       in this question the alphabets are divided into two parts ‘U’ being the central alphabet. After this each letter of both the halves are coded as one step forward and are then reversed i.e. 

                                                     

After reversing, the code for E N C O becomes P D O F same way code for R A G E becomes F H B S after reversing and U being at the centre remains at same position. So the answer for ACHIEVE will be IDBJFWF

 Tip:

                        If there seem to be no relationship between given question try and find the relation between the alphabets irrespective of their position. For example in the given alphabets the nearest alphabet to ‘E’ is ‘F’ which is at the end of the word. 

TYPE 2: Number Coding

In these questions, either numerical code values are assigned to a word or alphabetical code letters are assigned to the numbers. The candidate is required to analyze the code as per the directions. In the latter type letters are changed by the number of letters in their corresponding alphabetic position. The important ones are:

  1. Sometimes position numbers of letters remain the same. For example, if FEED is coded as 6554, what will BREAD be coded as? In this case position number of corresponding letters remains the same. So BREAD would be 218514.
  2. Position numbers letters are added. For example, if FEED is coded as 20, what is the code for BREAD? In this case position number is added, i.e., 6 + 5 + 5 + 4 = 20. So BREAD would be (2 + 18 + 5 + 1 + 4 =) 30.
  3. Sometimes position numbers of letters are added but at the same time a certain number is subtracted.
  4. Sometimes the sum of the position numbers of letters in words is divided by a certain number.

Case I: When numerical code values are assigned to words (Letter to number coding)

Example:      If in a certain language A is coded as 1, B is coded as 2, and so on, how is BIDDIC coded in that code?

                    (a) 294493     (b) 284563     (c) 375582     (d) 394492

Answer:         As given the letters are coded as

A

B

    C

D

E

F

G

H

I

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

 So, in BIDDIC, B is coded as 2, I as 9, D as 4, and C as 3. Thus BIDDIC is coded as 294493.

Hence, the answer is (a).

Example:      If PAINT is coded as 74128 and EXCEL is coded as 93596, then how would you encode ACCEPT?

                    (a) 455978     (b) 547978     (c) 554978     (d) 735961

Answer:         Clearly, in the given code, the alphabets are coded as follows:

 

P

A

I

N

T

E

X

C

L

7

4

1

2

8

9

3

5

6

 

So, in ACCEPT, A is coded as 4, C as 5, E as 9, P as 7 and T as 8. Hence, the correct code is 455978 and therefore, the answer is (a).

CASE II: Number to Letter Coding

When alphabetical code values are assigned to the numbers

Example:      In a certain code, 2 is coded as P, 3 as N, 9 as Q, 5 as R, 4 as A, then how is 599423 coded?

                    (a) EIIDBC     (b) RQPANB   (c) EIMDBC    (d) RQQAPN   (e) RPPBQN

Answer:       Clearly, as given 5 is coded as R, 9 as Q, 4 as A, 2 as P and 3 as N. So, 599423 is coded as RQQAPN. Hence, the answer is (d).

Example:      In a certain code, 3456 is coded as ROPE, 15526 is coded as APPLE, then how is 54613 coded?

                    (a) RPPEO   (b) ROPEA   (c) POEAR   (d) PAREO   (e) None of these

Answer:         Clearly in the given figures, the numbers are coded as follows:

3

4

5

6

1

2

R

O

P

E

A

L

 i.e., 5 is coded as P, 4 as O, 6 as E, 1 as A and 3 as R. So, 54613 is coded as POEAR. Hence, the answer is (c).

TYPE 3: Matrix Coding

Directions: In each of the following questions, a word is represented by only one set of number as given in any one of the alternatives. The sets of numbers given in the alternatives are represented by two classes of alphabets as in the two given matrices. The columns and rows of matrix I are numbered from 0 to 4 and that of matrix II from 5 to 9. A letter from these matrices can be represented first by its row and next by column number e.g., in the matrices for question 1, A can be represented by 13, 23 etc. T can be represented by 58, 65 etc. Similarly, identify the word COLD.                                                         

 

(a) 44, 96, 95, 22     (b) 31, 99, 77, 22     (c) 30, 66, 86, 43     (d) 10, 85, 79, 24

Answer:

From matrix I, C can be coded as 04, 10, 21, 31 or 44

From matrix II, O can be coded as 57, 69, 78, 85 or 96

From matrix II, L can be coded as 56, 68, 79, 89 or 95

From matrix I, D can be coded as 00, 11, 24, 32 or 41

Only (d) option contains all correct codes.

TYPE 4: Substitution

In this type of questions, some particular objects are assigned code names. Then a question is asked that is to be answered in the code language.

Example:      If cook is called butler, butler is called manager, manager is called teacher, teacher is called clerk and clerk is called principal, who will teach in a class?

(a) Cook       

(b) Butler     

(c) Manager  

(d) Teacher   

(e) Clerk

Answer:       Clearly, a ‘teacher’ teaches in a class and as given ‘teacher’ is called ‘clerk’

            Hence, the answer is (e).

Example:      If diamond is called gold, gold is called silver, silver is called ruby and ruby is called emerald, which is the cheapest jewel?

 

(a) Diamond  

(b) Silver      

(c) Gold        

(d) Ruby       

(e) Emerald

Answer:         We know that ‘silver’ is cheapest. But, as given, ‘silver’ is called ‘ruby’. So, ‘ruby’ is the cheapest.

            Hence, the answer is (d).

 

Tip:                 while solving these type of questions take into consideration only the nearest

                     Substitution and ignore the rest. For example in above example the nearest

 Substitution to silver is ruby and hence is the answer. All the rest are not needed.

TYPE 5: Mixed Letter Coding

In this type of questions, three or four complete messages are given in the coded language and the code for a particular word is asked. To analyze such codes, any two messages bearing a common word are picked up. The common code word will mean that word. Proceeding similarly by picking up all possible combinations of two, the entire message can be analyzed.

Example:       If ‘nso ptr kli chn’ stands for ‘Sharma gets marriage gift’, ‘ptr lnm wop chn’ stands for ‘wife gives marriage gift’,  ‘tti wop nhi’  stands for ‘he gives nothing’, What would mean ‘gives’?         

(a) chn         

(b) nhi         

(c) ptr          

(d) wop

Answer:       In the second and third statements, the common word is ‘gives’ and the common code word is ‘wop’. So, ‘wop’ means ‘gives’.

            Hence, the answer is (d).

Example:      If ‘tee see pee’ means ‘Drink fruit juice’; ‘see kee lee’ means ‘Juice is sweet’ and ‘lee ree mee’ means ‘He is intelligent’, which word in that language means ‘sweet’?

(a) see                  

(b) kee                  

(c) lee          

(d) pee                  

(e) tee

Answer:       ‘Juice’ is common in the first and second statements and ‘see’ is common code word. So ‘see’ means ‘Juice’.

In the second and third statements, the common word is ‘is’ and the common code is ‘lee’. So  ‘is’ stands for ‘lee’.

Thus, in the second statement the remaining word is sweet and code is ‘kee’.

Hence, the option (b) is correct.

 

Tip:                Easy way to solve these types of questions is to write the given coded message along with codes vertically one over another and circle/mark similar codes or mark the same codes and words with same number as you read the question. Refer to the following instance.

                       If ‘tee see1 pee’ means ‘Drink fruit juice1’; ‘see1 kee lee2’ means ‘Juice1 is2 sweet’ and ‘lee2 ree mee’ means ‘He is2 intelligent’, which word in that language means ‘sweet’?

So, kee stands for ‘sweet’ 

TYPE 6: Mixed Number Coding

In this type of questions, a few groups of numbers each coding a certain short message, are given. Through a comparison of the given coded messages, taking two at a time, the candidate is required to find the number code for each word and then formulate the code for the message given.

Example:      In a certain code, ‘786’ means ‘study very hard’, ‘958’ means ‘hard work pays’ and ‘645’ means ‘study and work’. Which of the following is the code for ‘very’?

(a) 8  

(b) 6  

(c) 7  

(d) Can’t be determined     

(e) None of these

Answer:       In the first and second statements, the common word is ‘hard’ and the common code digit is ‘8’. So, ‘8’ means ‘hard’.

            In the first and third statements, the common word is ‘study’ and the common code digit is ‘6’. So, ‘6’ means ‘study’.

          Thus, in the first statement, ‘7’ means ‘very’. Hence, the answer is (c).

Example:       If in a certain code language, ‘324’ means ‘Light is bright’, ‘629’ means ‘Girl is beautiful’ and ‘4758’ means ‘I prefer bright clothes’, which digit means ‘Light’ in that language?

(a) 3            

(b) 2            

(c) 4            

(d) 7            

(e) 5

Answer:       In the first and second statements, the common word is ‘is’ and the common code digit is ‘2’. So, ‘2’ means ‘is’.

            In the first and third statements, the common word is ‘bright’ and the common code digit is ‘4’. So, ‘4’ means ‘bright’.

          Thus, in the first statement, ‘3’ means ‘Light’. Hence, the answer is (a).

Tip:                 Easy way to solve these types of questions is to write the given coded message along with codes vertically one over another and circle/mark similar codes or mark the same codes and words with same number as you read the question.