Statements Conclusions

‘Conclusion’ means ‘a fact that can be truly inferred from the contents of a given sentence or passage’. The questions in this section thus consist of a statement/group of statements, followed by certain inferences based on the facts contained in the given statements.  The candidate is required to analyze the given statements, understand their indirect implications and then decide which of the given conclusions follows logically and for sure, from the given statements.

In this type of questions, one statement which is followed by two or more conclusions is given.  The candidates are required to find out which of the conclusion, logically follow from the given statement.

The students are advised to keep in mind the following important tips while solving such questions.

Some Important Tips

  1. Consider only the matter which is given in the statement.  Do not add anything in the statement from your side.
  2. You should avoid the presumption and it should be minded that the conclusion may not be converted into a course of action.
  3. If advice, result, remedy are related to the statement then they are valid.
  4. If the statement is related to publicity or an advertisement and conclusion fulfills the main purpose then it is valid.
  5. Generally the past statement is not valid.
  6. If some law or any correction is talked about in the statement then things related to it will be taken as conclusion because the idea of making a law or correction is that people will follow it.  But mind it that conclusion should be directly connected to the statement.
  7. If in conclusion the words, like : ‘definitely’, ‘quickly’, ‘cent-percent’, ‘only one’, ‘only forever’, ‘all’, ‘always’, ‘every’ etc. are linked then these are not considered.  But if the conclusion is direct result of the statement, then it is considered.

Example:  

Statement:

The manager humiliated Sachin in the presence of his colleagues.

Conclusions:

 I. The manager did not like Sachin.

                II. Sachin was not popular with his colleagues.

Answer:

Clearly, none of the given conclusions is either mentioned in or can be drawn from the facts given in the statement.

Example:

Statement:

Any young man who makes dowry as a condition for marriage discredits himself and dishonors womanhood.

Conclusions:

I. Those who take dowry in marriage should be condemned by society.

II. Those who do not take dowry in marriage respect womanhood.

Answer:

Clearly, the statement declares dowry as an evil practice and reflects its demerits.  Thus, conclusions I follow.  Also, it is given that those who take dowry dishonor womanhood.  This implies that those who do not take dowry respect womanhood.  So, conclusion II follows.

Coded Inequality

In reasoning inequality means ‘To find the relation of greater, smaller, equal among the elements on the basis of the given facts. The questions on this chapter are generally asked in all examinations. These question are based on the mathematical rules greater (>) smaller (<), equal (=) and not equal (≠).

Important points to remember___

  1. If it is said that A is greater than B it means A is always greater than B or B is always less than A.
  2. If A is smaller than B (A<B) it means that A is always smaller than B or B is greater than A.
  3. If A = B then A is always equal to B and nothing except this.
  4. If A ≠ B i.e. A is not equal to B it means either A > B or A < B.
  5. If A  B or A ≤ B i.e. A is not greater than B, it means   either A = B or A <B.
  6. If A  B or A ≥ B i.e. A is not less than B, it means either A = B or A > B.
    1. A ≥ B i.e. A is greater and equal to B it, means A can be greater than B and A can be equal to B.
  7. If A ≤ B i.e. A is smaller and equal to B, it means A can be less than B or A can be equal to B.

In the following questions the symbols ⊕,, ©, and © are used with the following meaning.

x ⊕ y means x is greater than y.

xy means either x is greater than or equal to y.

x ® y means x is equal to y.

x © y means x is smaller than y

x © y means either x is smaller or equal to y.

Answer the following three examples with the data given above.

Example:

Statement: k⊕ P; L © R; K ® R.

Conclusions: I. k © R.

                     II. k ⊕ R.

Answer:         k⊕ P⇒k > P; L © R⇒L < R and k ® R⇒ k = R.

                        \ P < K = R > L

  1. K © R⇒ k < R (False)
  2. K ⊕R⇒k > R (False)

          Hence both the conclusions are false.

Example:

Statements: M © L; L © S; S⊕R

    Conclusion: I. M © S

                   II.M © k

Answer:         M © L⇒ M < L; L © S ⇒L < S and S⊕R⇒S > k

 

                       \ M< L < S > k

  1. M © S⇒ M < S (True)
  2. M © k ⇒M < k (False)

Hence only I is true.

 

Example:

Statements: G⊕H; HL; L⊕M

Conclusions: I. H⊕M

                     II. H ® M

Answer:  

G⊕H⇒G > H; HL⇒ H ≥ L and LM⇒L ≥ M

                             \ G > H ≥ L ≥ M

                   I. H⊕M⇒H > M

                   II. H ® M⇒H = M

Thus we see H may be greater than M or H may be equal to M. Hence either I is true or II is true.