Logical and Critical Inference

What is logical and critical inference?

Logical and critical inference is the process of drawing conclusions from premises or evidence. It is a skill that is essential for critical thinking and problem-solving.

Types of logical and critical inference

There are many different types of logical and critical inference. Some of the most common types include:

  • Deductive inference: Deductive inference is the process of drawing a conclusion that is logically necessary from the premises. In other words, the conclusion must be true if the premises are true.
  • Inductive inference: Inductive inference is the process of drawing a conclusion that is probable based on the evidence. In other words, the conclusion is likely to be true, but it is not certain.
  • Abductive inference: Abductive inference is the process of drawing a conclusion that is the best explanation for the evidence. In other words, the conclusion is the most likely explanation for the evidence, even though there may be other possible explanations.

How to make logical and critical inferences

To make logical and critical inferences, you need to carefully consider the premises or evidence that is presented. You need to identify the key information and the relationships between the different pieces of information. You also need to be able to apply the rules of logic to draw conclusions.

Here are some tips for making logical and critical inferences:

  • Identify the premises or evidence. What are the key pieces of information that you are given?
  • Identify the relationships between the premises or evidence. How are the different pieces of information related to each other?
  • Apply the rules of logic to draw conclusions. Are there any logical rules that can be applied to the premises or evidence to draw a conclusion?
  • Consider all possible conclusions. Are there multiple conclusions that could be drawn from the premises or evidence?
  • Evaluate the conclusions. Are the conclusions reasonable and supported by the evidence?

Examples of logical and critical inferences

Here are some examples of logical and critical inferences:

  • Deductive inference:
    • Premise 1: All cats are mammals.
    • Premise 2: Whiskers is a cat.
    • Conclusion: Whiskers is a mammal.
  • Inductive inference: *Premise: I have flipped a coin and it has landed on heads 10 times in a row.
    • Conclusion: The next time I flip the coin, it is likely to land on heads.
  • Abductive inference:
    • Premise: The car will not start.
    • Premise: The battery is dead.
    • Conclusion: The dead battery is the best explanation for why the car will not start.

Practicing logical and critical inference

The best way to improve your ability to make logical and critical inferences is to practice. Try reading different types of texts and making inferences about the author's intent, the meaning of the passage, and the implications of the information that is presented. You can also try working on logical and critical thinking exercises or quizzes.

Example : 

1. Read the following passage and answer the question based on the information provided:

Passage: "You are focused on some question, issue, or problem, using information to come to conclusions, based on assumptions, all of which have implications."

What can you infer from this passage?

a. The information is based on facts.
b. The information is subjective.
c. The information is objective.
d. The information is an opinion.

Answer: c. The information is objective.

Explanation: The passage describes a process of using information to come to conclusions, which is an objective approach to problem-solving and critical thinking.

2. Read the following passage and answer the question based on the information provided:

Passage: "Choice D is the best answer. Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because the cited lines don't provide the best evidence for the conclusion that the streams used ..."

What can you infer from this passage?

 a. The conclusion is based on deductive reasoning.
b. The conclusion is based on inductive reasoning.
c. The conclusion is based on subjective reasoning.
d. The conclusion is based on objective reasoning.

Answer: a. The conclusion is based on deductive reasoning.

Explanation: The passage evaluates the options based on the best evidence for the conclusion, which is a characteristic of deductive reasoning.

3. Read the following passage and answer the question based on the information provided:

Passage: "Choice A is the best answer. Choices B, C, and D are incorrect because in the context of the last paragraph describing a scientific theory as being ..."

What can you infer from this passage?

a. The conclusion is based on deductive reasoning.
b. The conclusion is based on inductive reasoning.
c. The conclusion is based on subjective reasoning.
d. The conclusion is based on objective reasoning.

Answer: d. The conclusion is based on objective reasoning.

Explanation: The passage evaluates the options based on the context of the last paragraph, which is an objective approach to reasoning.

4. Read the following passage and answer the question based on the information provided:

Passage: "Choice C is incorrect because the first paragraph describes the author's personal opinion and his conclusion, not a conclusion reached by a consensus. Choice D ..."

What can you infer from this passage?

a. The conclusion is based on deductive reasoning.
b. The conclusion is based on inductive reasoning.
c. The conclusion is based on subjective reasoning.
d. The conclusion is based on objective reasoning.

Answer: c. The conclusion is based on subjective reasoning.

Explanation: The passage evaluates the options based on the author's personal opinion and conclusion, which is a characteristic of subjective reasoning.

5. Read the following passage and answer the question based on the information provided:

Passage: "Choice C is incorrect because the first paragraph describes the author's personal opinion and his conclusion, not a conclusion reached by a consensus. Choice D ..."

What can you infer from this passage?

a. The conclusion is based on deductive reasoning.
b. The conclusion is based on inductive reasoning.
c. The conclusion is based on subjective reasoning.
d. The conclusion is based on objective reasoning.

Answer: c. The conclusion is based on subjective reasoning.

Explanation: The passage evaluates the options based on the author's personal opinion and conclusion, which is a characteristic of subjective reasoning.

Conclusion

Logical and critical inference is an important skill that can help you to better understand the world around you and to make informed decisions. By following the tips above, you can learn to make logical and critical inferences more effectively.