Inventions and Discoveries

 GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES

Invention

Inventor

Country

Year

Adding machine

Pascal

 France

1642

Aeroplane

Wright brothers

USA

1903

Artificial heart

William Kolff

 

1957

Atom Bomb

J. Robert Oppenheimer

   

Balloon

Jacques and Joseph Montgolfier

France

1783

Ball-point pen

C.Biro

Hungary

1938

Barometer

E.Torricelli

Italy

1644

Bicycle

K. Macmillan

Scotland

1839

Bicycle tyre

J.B. Dumlop

Scotland

1888

Calculating machine

Pascal

France

1642

Centigrade scale

A. Celsius

France

1742

Cinematograph

Thomas Alva Edison

USA

1891

Computer

Charles Babbage

Britain

1834

Cine camera

Friese-Greene

Britain

1889

Cinema

A.L. and J.L. Lumiere

France

1895

Clock (mechanical)

Hsing and Ling-Tsan

China

1725

Clock (pendulum)

C. Hugyens

Netherlands

1657

Cellophane

Dr. J. Brandenberger

France

1908

Diesel engine

Rudolf Diesel

Germany

1892

Dynamite

Alfred Nobel

Sweden

1867

Dynamo

Michael Faraday

England

1831

Electric iron

H.W. Seeley

USA

1882

Electric lamp

Thomas Alva Edison

USA

1879

Electromagnet

W. Sturgeon

England

1824

Evolution (theory)

Charles Darwin

England

1858

Film (with sound)

Dr Lee de Forest

USA

1923

Fountain Pen

LE. Waterman

USA

1884

Gas lighting

William Murdoch

Scotland

1794

Gramophone

T.A Edison

USA

1878

Hydrogen Bomb

Edward Teller

Los Alamos

1951

Jet Engine

Sir Frank Whittle

England

1937

Lift

E.G. Otis

USA

1852

Locomotive

Richard Trevithick

England

1804

Logarithms

John Napier

Scotland

1614

Machine gun

Richard Gatling

USA

1861

Match (safety)

J.E. Lurdstrom

Sweden

1855

Microphone

David Hughes

USA

1878

Microscope

Z. Jansen

Netherlands

1590

Motor car (petrol)

Karl Benz

Germany

1885

Motorcycle

Edward Butler

England

1884

Neon-lamp

G. Claude

France

1915

Nylon

Dr. W.H Carothers

USA

1937

Photography (paper)

W.H. Fox Tablot

England

1835

Printing press

J. Gutenberg

Germany

1455

Radar

Dr. A. H. Taylor and L.C Young

USA

1922

Radium

Marie and pierre Curie

France

1898

Radio

G. Marconi

England

1901

Rayon

American Viscose Co.

USA

1910

Razor (safety)

K.G. Gillette

USA

1895

Razor (electric)

Col. J. Schick

USA

1931

Refrigerator

J. Harrison and A. Catlin

Britain

1834

Revolver

Samuel Colt

USA

1835

Rubber (vulcanized)

Charles Goodyear

USA

1841

Rubber (waterproof)

Charles Macintosh

Scotland

1819

Radioactivity

Henri Becquerel

France

1896

Safety lamp

Sir Humphrey Davy

England

1816

Safety pin

William Hurst

USA

1849

Sewing machine

B. Thimmonnier

France

1830

Scooter

G. Bradshaw

England

1919

Ship (steam)

J.C. Perier

France

1775

Ship (turbine)

Sir Charles Parsons

Britain

1894

Shorthand (modem)

Sir Isaac Pitman

Britain

1837

Spinning frame

Sir Richard Arkwight

England

1769

Spinning jenny

James Hargreaves

England

1764

Steam engine (piston)

Thomas Newcome

Britain

1712

Steel engine (condenser)

James Watt

Scotland

1765

Steel production

Henry Bessemer

England

1855

Stainless Steel

Harry Brearley

England

1913

Tank

Sir Ernest Swington

England

1914

Telegraph code

Samuel F.B. Morse

USA

1837

Telephone

Alexander Graham Bell

USA

1876

Telescope

Hans Lippershey

Netherlands

1608

Television

John Logie Bared

Scotland

1926

Terylene

J. Whinfield and H. Dickson

England

1941

Thermometer

Galileo Galilei

Italy

1593

Tractor

J. Froelich

USA

1892

Transistor

Bardeen, Shockley

USA and Britain

1949

Typewriter

C. Sholes

USA

1868

Teabag

Thomas Sullivan

New York

1908

Telegraph

Samuel Finley Breese Morse

USA

1835

Toilet paper

Joseph Gayetty

 

1857

Tractor

John Froehlich

Iowa

1892

Transformer

Michael Faraday

   

Typewriter

Christopher Latham Sholes

USA

1867

Value of radio

Sir J.A. Fleming

Britain

1904

Watch

A.L. Breguet

France

1791

X-ray

Wilhelm Roentgen

Germany

1895

Zip fastener

W.L. Judson

USA

1891

 

    

Exploration and Discoveries:

 

 

   Period

  Explore

    Nationality

   Discovery

   982

  Eric the Red

    Viking

   Discovered Greenland

   1000

  Leif Ericsson

    Viking

   Reached N America

   1255

  Nicolo and Marco

  Polo

    Venetians

   Travelled to Peking

   1271-94

  Marco Polo

    Venetian

   Travelled through

   China, India and other

   parts of Asia

  1487-88

  Bartholomew Diaz

    Portuguese

   Travelled round the

   Cape of Good Hope

  1492

  Christopher

  Columbus

    Spanish

   Discovered San

   Salvador (now

   Watling Island), the

   Bahamas, Cuba and

   Haiti

  1498

  Christopher

  Columbus Vasco de

  Gama

   Spanish

   Landed on the Mainland

   of South America

   Strati; reached the

   Philippines

   and named the Pacific

   Ocean

  1502-04

  Christopher

  Columbus

   Spanish

   Discovered Trinidad

  15919-22

  Ferdinand

  Megellan

   Portuguese

   First to sail round the

   world, discovered the

   Magellan Strait;

   reached the Philippines

   and named the Pacific

   Ocean

  1534-36

  Jacques Cartier

  French

   Discovered Canada

  1577-80

  Sir Francis Drake

  English

   Sailed round the

   world in the Golden

   Hind

  1606

  William Janszoon

  Dutch

   Discovered Australia

  1740-44

  Lord Anson George

  English

   Saied round the world

   in the Centurion

  1768-71

  Capt James Cook

  English

   Sailed round the world

   in the Endeavour,

   charted the New

   Zealand coast and

   surveyed the east coast

   of Australia, naming it

   New South Wales

  1772

  Capt James Cook

  English

   Discovered Easter

   Island

  1831

  Sir James Clark

  and Rear Admiral

  Sir /john Ross

  English

   Located the magnetic

   Pole

  1909

  Rear Admiral

  Robert Peary

 

  American

   Reached the North Pole

  1911

  Capt Amundsen

  Norwegian

   First to reach the South

   Pole (December 14)

  1912

  Capt R E Scott

  English

   Reached the South Pole

   (January 18)

  1929

  Admiral R Byrd

  American

   First flight over the

   South Pole

  1957-58

  Sir Vivian Fuchs

  and Sir Edmund

  Hillary

  English and New  Zealander

   First to cross the

   Antarctic

  1961-62

  Maj Yuri Gagarin

  and Maj Gherman

  Titov

 

   Russian

   First to journey into

   space

 

  Comm Alan

  Shepare, Capt

  Virgil Grissom and

  Col John Glenn

   Americans

    First to journey into

    space

  1963

  Valentina

  Tereshkova

   Russian

   First woman to journey

   into space

  1965

  Col. Leonov Major

  White

 

   Russian  American

   First man to ‘walk’ in

   Space

   1968

  Frank Boreman,

  Bill Anders and Jim

  Lovell  

   American

    First man to circle the

    moon 

  1969

  Neil Armstrong and

  Edwin Aldrin

  Charles Conrad and

  Alan Bean

   Americans

   Second pair to step on

   the moon