Famous Personalities World

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE (WORLD)

 

FAMOUS PERSONALITIES WORLD

 

  Abdul Rehman Tunku (1903-73):     The Malaysian statesman who negotiated withThe British for the independence of Malaysia. He was the first Prime Minster of Malaysia. Abraham Lincoln (1809-65 AD):  The 16th President of USA, who succeeded in

abolishing slavery. He was re-elected as President in 1864 and assassinated by

John Wiles Booth in 1865.  

Abu-Bakr (573-634 AD):  Abu-Bakr, a leading general of prophet Mohammed, was the first Caliph of the Muslim empire and ruled from 632 AD. He made Islam a political and military force in Arabia.

Adolf Hitler (1889-1945):   The Austria-born German dictator who influenced the course of history in the 20th century. He served in the German Army in World War I. He later founded the Nazi party and became Chancellor in 1933. He pushed the countries of the world into World War II, in which five million people lost their lives. In 1939 his troops invaded Poland, causing the outbreak of World War II, and in 1945 Germany faced total defeat. He married his mistress Eva Braun in April 1945 and the next day they are said to have committed suicide.

Aesop (600 BC):  The Greek author of Aesop’s Fables, which are moral tales with animal protagonists. The famous title ‘The Tortoise and the Hare’ was his creation.   

Alberuni:   The famous Arab historian who visited India along with the armies of Mahmud of Ghazni and wrote an account of India.

Alfonso de Albuquerque:  Founder of the Portuguese empire in the East, he conquered Goa in 1510 and died in 1515.

Alexander the Great (356-323 BC): King of Macedonia, who conquered most of Asia Minor and defeated Pours (India) in 327 BC. A mutiny in his army prevented Him from advancing further into India and he died in 323 BC.                                 

Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922): The Scottish-American scientist who invented the telephone in 1876.

Andre-Marie Ampere (1775-1836):  A French scientist who formulated Ampere’s Law. The SI unit of electric current is named after him.

Alighieri Dante (1265-1321):   Italian poet, author of Divine Commedia, a philosophical poem telling the story of an imaginary journey through Hell. He also wrote love poems which were collected under the title La Vita Nuova.

Alexander Fleming (181-1995): The Scottish bacteriologist discovered penicillin in 1928. He, however, could not isolate it but this was later achieved by Florey and China with whom he shared the Nobel Prize in medicine in 1945.

Albert Eintein (1879-1955): One of the most illustrious scientists of the 20th century, he was born in 1879 at Ulam in Germany and completed his education in Switzerland. He made the revolutionary discovery of the Theory of Relativity in 1905, which established his reputation among the physicists of Europe. In 1921 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics. He died in the USA on April 18, 55.

Alfred Lord Tennyson (1802-92): England’s Poet Laureate from till his death in 1892. Author of In Memoraim, a poem of great beauty and depth of thought.       

Ang Dorjee:  A Nepalese Sherpa, who climbed Mt Everest in 1984 with Bachendri Pal, first Indian woman to conquer Mt. Everest. He has the distinction of having Climbed Mt Everest twice without the use of oxygen.

Archimedes (287-212 BC): The Greek scientist and mathematician known for his discovery of the unique principle of buoyancy (Law of floating). Also discovered and analysed the principle of the lever and invented the Archimedes screw to raise water.

Arthur Holly Compton:   American scientist, noted for his research on X-rays; won the Noble Prize in 1927.                                        

Bartholomew Diaz (1450-1500) :  A Portuguese navigator who was the first European to sail round the Gape of Good Hope (the southern tip of the African continent).

Benjamin Franklin (1706-90) :  US statesman who promoted the American Declaration of Independence (1776) and was involved in worked drafting in the Constitution of America.

Captain James Cook (1728-19)Book is a great British explore and navigator.He travelled to New Zealand and eastern Australia from 1768-71 in his ship   Endeavour. On his second voyage he reached the Antarctic circle, and he discovered  the Hawaiian Islands on the third voyage. He also wrote the classic work Voyage  Round the world ..

Charlie Chaplin (1889-77) :  Chaplin was a Great British comedian, film actor, director, producer and composer.

Charles Dickens (1812-70) : An English novelist Dickens’ famous works are David Copperfield, Oliver Twist, and Great Expectations .     

Charles Robert Darwin (1809-82) :  The British naturalist who put forward theory of evolution based on natural selection. He studied fossils and diverse plant and Animal life during his voyage (1831-36) around South America and the Pacific . His works, The Origin of Species  (1859) and Descent of Man (1871) revolutionized man’s knowledge of evolution.

Christian Hyugens (1629-95) : Dutch mathematician and physicist renowned for evolving the wave theory of light. He invented the pendulum clock based on Galible’s theory (1580). He also discovered the rings of Saturn and its fourth satellite.

Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) : Italian explorer, Columbus was the first modern  European to discover the Americas in 1492 . He reached Bahamas in 1492 and discovered  Puerto Rico and Jamaica as well, In 1498-1500 he reached Trinidad and South America. 

Chou-en-Lai (1898-1976) :  Chinese revolutionary and Prime Minster from 1949-58, he  was instrumental in involving China world displomacy. He played key role in nearly every major political and diplomatic event or crisis involving China till his death in 1976.  

Andrews C F (1871-1940) : A British missionary and close associate of Mahatma Gandhi who came to India  in 1940 and devoted himself to India’s freedom struggle. He came to be known as Deenabandhu.

Cleopatra (69-30 BC) : Queen of Egypt, she noted for her beauty. Cleopatra was the daughter of Ptolemy XI of Egypt and succeeded him as queen in 51 BC.

Dwight David Eisenhower (1890-1969) : US General and President between 1953-61. In 1950 he was made supreme commander of NATO but resigned when he won the US presidential elections of 1952. He won his second term in 1956.

Edward Morgan Foster (1879-1970):  Famous British writer who wrote numerous books on India. Author of Where Angels Fear to Tread, A Room with a View, Howards End and Passage to India.

Edward Jenner (1749-1823): The English physician and surgeon who developed the small pox vaccination.

Epicurus (342-270 BC): A Greek philosopher who founded ‘Epicurean’ philosophy which describes a life of indulgent pleasure-seeking, i.e., virtues should be followed because they lead to happiness.

Euclid (350-300 BC):  Greek mathematician, his important contribution was the use of deductive principles of logic as the basis of geometry. He propounded the geometrical theorems.     

Faiz Ahmed Faiz:  A revolutionary Urdu poet of Pakistan. He died in 1984.

Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521): The Portuguese navigator who crossed the ocean which he named Pacific, reaching the Marianas and the Philippines.

Florence Nightingale (1820-1920): Also known as the ‘Lady with the Lamp’. She was a devoted British nurse who reformed the nursing profession and was the first woman to receive the Order of Merit (1907).

Francois Bernier:  The French traveler who served as physician to Aurangzeb during his stay in India.

Francis Xavier (1506-52): The Spanish missionary who preached in Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the East converted thousand to Christianity. He lived in Goa between 1540 and 1552.

Frances Marie Arovet de Voltaire (1697-1779): French writer and philosopher. His philosophy made a significant impact on prevailing ideas which led to the outbreak of the French revolution in 1789.

Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit (1686-1736): German physicist and resident of Holland, he developed the mercury thermometer in 1741 and later devised its temperature scale.

Galileo (1564-1642): The Italian astronomer, who developed the telescope and discovered four satellites of Jupiter. His belief that Copernicus was right in advocating that the sun is at the centre of universe led to his persecution.  While dying he said ‘But it (earth) does move’. He also discovered that the movement of the pendulum produces a regular time measurement. The Pendulum clock was later invented by Huygens.

Geoffrey Chaucer (1342-1400):  The English poet who is considered the father of English poetry. His famous works include The Book of Dutches (1369) and Canterbury Tales (a collection of stories).

George Wahington (1732-99) The American general who led the revolt against the British and declared independence. He became the first President of USA.

Dr. George B Kisitiakowsky (1870-1952): A chemist and professor at Harvard, he Worked on the first atomic bomb and later strongly advocated the banning of nuclear weapons. He died at the age of 82 in 1952.

Gottleib Daimler (1834-1900): The German scientist who developed the petrol driven internal combustion engine. He founded the Daimler Motor Company in 1890, which built the first Mercedes.       

Gugeliemo Marconi (1874-1937): Italian physicist who invented the radio and wireless system. He shared the Nobel Pirze in Physics with Ferdinand Braum of Germany in 1909 for the development of the wireless.

Henry Kissinger (b. 1923): US foreign policy adviser, he was born in Germany, but fled from the Nazis to live in the US. He remained Secretary of State under President Nixon. He helped to negotiate the Vietnam issue (1973), for which he shared the Noble Pirze for Peace (1973) along with North Vietnam’s negotiator Le Duc Tho. He was credited with the Theory of Realpolitik.

Henry Miller (1891-1980): Controversial American novelist, author of Tropic of Cancer (1931) and Tropic of Capricorn (1935) which were published in Paris but banned in USA until the 1960s because of their frank sexual themes.

Homer (9 century BC): The Greek writer is considered to be the author of the classic epics The Iliad and The Odyssey, which rank among the most precious treasures of world literature.

Sir Humphrey Davy (1778-1828) : A renowned British chemist, Davy invented the safety lamp for miners. He also discovered the anaesthetic properties of nitrous oxide (language gas), the fact that the chlorine is an element and that diamonds are a form of carbon.

Ibn Batuta:  A great scholar and traveler from Somalia who visited India in 1333 AD During the reign of Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq and wrote a chronicle on him. He spent eight years in India on his way to China.

Sir Issac Newton (1642-1727):  English mathematician and physicist, famous for his discovery of the Law of Gravitation and three Laws of Motion.

James Prescott Joule (1818-89):   The British physicist who was the first to measure the mechanical equivalent of heat; the measuring unit of which has been named after him.

James Watt (1736-1819):   The Scottish instrument maker who turned to making high pressure steam engines.                                    

Jacques Charles (1764-1823):   A French physicist, known for his Charles’ Law and Guy- Lussac’s Law of gases.

J B Priestley (1894-1984):  British writer, author of The Good Companions (1929), he enjoyed great popularity. His other works include Angle Pavement, Dangerous Corner, AnInspector’s Call, etc.

John Milton (1608-74)   An English poet, he wrote a poem in support of free press tilted Areopagit (1644), essays Tenure of Kings and Magistrates (1649). His epic poem Paradise Lost was published in 10 volumes in 1667 and in 12 volumes in 1674. Paradise Regained and Samson Agonistes were his other major works published in 1671. He was totally blind for a good many years of his life.

John Keats (1795-1821): An English poet, works include La Belle Dame Sans Meric, Endymion (A thing of beauty is a joy forever), The Eve of St Agnes and ode to a Nightingale, among others .

Joan of Arc (1412-31): A brave French girl, also known as the Maid of Orleans, Joan led The French resistance that forced the English to raise the siege of Orleans (1429). At the age of 17 she led an Army of 12,000 to Rheims and persuaded Charles VII to go there to be crowned as King of France. She was ultimately captured and sold to the English (1430) by the Burgundians and was burnt at the stake in Roven.

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1834):  German writer, scientist and a major figure in the world of literature, he devoted his life to writing poetry, novels and plays.

John Dalton (1766-1844):  An English chemist who postulated the Atomic theory and defined atomic weight, he was also famous for Dalton’s Law-the pressure of a mixture of gases is the sum of the partial pressures of the components of the mixture.

John Logie Baird (1888-1946):  The Scottish television pioneer, who invented television in 1926.

Julius Caesar (100-44 BC): Roman general and statesman who invaded Britain and Returned to Rome as a popular hero. He fell in love with Cleopatra the Egyptian queen, who Followed him to Rome. He was given a mandate by the people to rule as a dictator and was Worshipped as a god in his lifetime. However’s he was murdered by a group of trusted friends led by Marcus Juniues Brutus.

John F Kennedy (1917-63): One of the most popular Presidents of USA. He was the first Roman Catholic President and the youngest American to be elected to the Office of President of USA. He wrote several books, among which Why England Slept and Profile inCourage are his two most famous books. He was assassinated on November 23,1963.

Kamal Ataturk (1881-1938): Reformer and builder of modern Turkey.

Karl Marx (1818-83):  German journalist and philosopher who propounded the doctrine of Communism, also known as Marxism. He was the author of Das Kapital.

Kublai Khan (1216-1294):  A Mongolian emperor who conquered most of Asia. He was the grandson of Ghengiz Khan.                            

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519):  The great Italian painter, sculptor and architect who has been described as a genius of the Renaissance. His masterpiece Monalisa brought him universal fame. The Last Supper is also one of his well known paintings. Over and above he excelled as a inventor, mathematician, engineer, naturalist and anatomist. In anatomy, he learnt about the working of the body by dissecting more than 30 corpses. He also created moulds of organs such as the heart, lungs and womb.

Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910): Tolstoy is among the greatest Russian Literary figures. Mahatma Gandhi was greatly influenced by his works which include Anna Karenina and War andPeace.

Leon Trotsky (1828-1910): Russian revolutionary and one of the leaders of the Bolshevist revolution, he was assassinated in  1940 when in exile in Mexico.

Louis Pasteur (1822-95): Pasteur was the French scientist who discovered that germs exist and are the cause of infection. The technique of pasteurising milk is name after him. He also conducted research in areas of hydrophobia, bacteriology, cholera, etc.

Louis Braille (1809-52):  French inventor of the Braille system  (raised point lettering), a system of writing and printing for the blind. He himself became blind at the age of 3 and became a teacher for the blind in 1828.

Marco Polo (1254-1323):  The Italian traveler, who was the first European to visit China. He also journeyed to India and other countries of the Far East, and published records of his travels.

Marcus Junius Brutus (85-82 BC):  Roman governor and principal assassin in the murder of Julius Caesar.                                               

Madam Marie Curie (1867-1934):  Madam Curie was the only person he have won two Noble Prizes. She was a Polish chemist known for her discovery of radium (1898). Along with her husband Pierre Curie, a French scientist, she carried out research in radioactivity and they were awarded the Noble Prize for Physics in 1903. After her husband’s death she continued her research and in 1911 was awarded the second Noble Prize in Chemistry for her discovery of radium and polonium.

Mathew Arnold (1822-88):  A famous English poet and critic, some of Arnold’s famous poems are Sohrab and Rustam and Scholar Gipsy.

Martin Kuther King (1929-68):  A Black American (Negro) clergyman and civil rights leader, he led a non-violent movement to obtain full civil rights for American negroes and became a martyr for his cause. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1964. He assassinated on April 5,1968 by a white fanatic.

Marshal Tito (1892-1980): Ex-President of Yugoslavia, he was leader of the partisan forces that fought successfully against German occupation in 1941. He was made President of Yugoslavia for life in 1963.

Megasthenes (302-298 BC): He was the Greek ambassador, sent by Seleucus, in the court of Chandragupta (Maurya. He wrote a detailed account of India in his work Indica.

Michael Faraday (1791-1867): The British scientist who discovered electromagnetism, Faraday also discovered benzene, liquid gases and optical glass. In 1841 he discovered the induction of electric current, which led to the invention of the electric motor. He also contributed to the development of electrolysis.                                               

Mohammed Neguib: The first President of Egypt, he was put under house arrest in 1954 by Abdel Gamel Nasser. Seventeen years, later President Anwar Sadat freed him in 1971.

Maria, Montessori (1870-1952): Italian educationist and founder of the Montessori system of education that stresses on the development of a child’s own initiative and natural abilities, especially through practical play and individual guidance rather than through strict control.

Lord Mountbatten (1900-79): Britain’s supreme allied Commander in South-east in World War II; he became the last Viceroy of India. He declared India a free nation and became the first Governor-General of independent India.

Napolean Bonaparte (1769-1821):  He was a French statesman and later became King of France (1769-97), Napolean was the most brilliant general of his time; he won a series of splendid victories against England, Russia and Austria in 1805. He was defeated in the Battle of Waterloo in June 1815 and exiled to St Helena, where he died in 1821.

Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543):  Polish astronomer known for his discovery of heavenly bodies, their movement around the sun and that the sun is the centre of the universe.

Nikita Khrushchev (1894-1971):  A Russian follower of Joseph Stalin, Khrushchev was Head of the Soviet Republic. When Stalin died he became the first Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party and was Prime Minster during 1958-64. He died in 971.    

Oliver Cromwell (1599-1655):  Cormwell was an English soldier and statesman, who established a commonwealth in Britain and became its head with the title ‘Lord Protector’.He ruled the country for five years between 1653-58.

Porus: A Hindu king of Punjab, who fought against the Greek invader Alexander when the latte invaded India and nearly defeated him. Alexander admired his gallantry and returned his kingdom to him.    

Pythagoras (582-500 BC):  A Greek philosopher, theologian and mathematician (especially geometry). Though his famous theorem was previously known, he was the first to prove its universal validity.

Queen Elizabeth I (1533-1603): Queen Elizabeth I of England (158-1603) was the daughter of Henry VIII. Her reign saw the development of English literature. William Shakespeare lived during her time.

Queen Elizabeth II (b. 1926): Queen Elizabeth of Great Britain and Northen Ireland assended the throne in 1952.                                    

Rene Franck: President of the International Hockey Federation for 17 years. He died in 1983.

Robert Wilhelm Bunsen (1811-99): A German scientist who invented the Bunsen burner.

Robert Boyle (1627-91): An Irish chemist, famous for his Boyle’s law of gases.

Robert Clive (1725-74):  He came to India as a clerk in the East India Company. He became Commander-in-Chief and fought against the French in India. He defeated Siraj-ud-daulah in the battle of Plassey in 1737. Later he ruled India. As Governor (1765) and committed suicide in 1774.

Roger Bacon (1214-94): Bacon was an English scientist, encyclopaedist, philosopher and inventor of the magnifying glass and gun powder.

Rudolf Diesel (1858-1913): A German engineer who invented the diesel engine in 1893.

Rudyard Kipling (1865-1913) : English writer, whose famous works include Tales From the Hills, The Light That Failed, Jungle Book, Barrack Room Ballads, Kim, Just-so-Stories, Puck of Pook’s Hill. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1907, which he later returned.           

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939): A renowned Austrian psychologist, who developed the Theory of psychoanalysis. He authored The Interpretation of Dreams and The Ego and the Id .

Stalin (1879-1953): Soviet Statesman and architect of the former USSR, he became premier in 1941 and triumphed as a leader during World War II. An active revolutionary leader from the age of 17, he took part in the civil war, and rose to become an outstanding figure in Soviet Russia.     

Sun Yat Sen (1866-1925) : The founder and the first president of the Chinese Republic in 1912. In 1905 Sun Yat Sen founded the China Revolutionary League in Europe and Japan and played a prominent part in the revolution of 1911.

Thomas Alva Edison (1847-1931) : US born inventor with more than 1300 US and foreign patents to his credit for his inventions; most of them concerned with electricity. Some of his important inventions are the incandescent lamp. Phonograph (Gramophone) , carbon telephone transmitters and microphone.

Thomas Addision (1793-1860): The British physician known for his discovery of what is now known as Addison’s Disease, and for his works on ductless glands .

Timur (1336-1405) : Head of the Chaghta Turks. He was a powerful warrior and a plunderer infamous for the sacking of Delhi (indiscriminate massacre and plunder) during his invasion of India in 1398.       

Vasco de Gama (1470-1524) : The Portuguese explorer who made the first voyage from Europe, round Africa to the east and reached Calicut (India) in 1498.    

Valdimir Illich Lenin (1870-1924) : Also known as Nikolai Lenin, he was a Russian revolutionary leader. He was exiled to Siberia in 1895 where he continued to guide the revolutionary struggle of the Russian people, in 1898 he created a new party- the Bolshevik Party-to bring about a communist revolution in Russia. On November 7,1917, a new Socialist government was formed under the leadership revolution in Russia. On November 7, 1917, a new Socialist government was formed under the leadership of Lenin.

Walt Disney (1901-66) : US film producer, he is famous as the creator of cartoon films starring the popular cartoon characters Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck.

Woodrow  Wilson (1856-1924) : He was President of America during World War I. He became famous for his ’14 points’ and played a notable part in the setting up of the League of Nations.

William Wordsworth (1770-1850) : The English poet whose famous works include The Prelude, Intimations on lmmorality, The Recluse, The Solitary Reaper, etc.

Sir Winston Churchill (1874-1965) : British statesman and war leader, who was Prime Minister of Britain during World War II. His publication The Second World War (in 6 volumes) became very famous and earned him the Nobel Prize in 1953. He resigned as prime Minster in 1955 and published his major work A History of the English Speaking People.

William Crooks (1832-1919) : British chemist and physicist who discovered the element Thallium in 1861, invented the radiometer, and also pioneered research on cathode rays.

William Thompson Kelvin (1824-1907) : British physicist who put forward the idea of an absolute measurement of temperature and invented the Kelvin scale of temperature.

Lord William Bentinck:  Governor-General of India, famous for the sati reforms and suppression of human sacrifice. He also introduced English education on India.

William Shakespeare (1564-1616): English dramatist and poet, considered the greatest literature. He was bron at Straford-on-Avon, and was the son of a tradesman. He married Anne Hathaway in 1582. His first play was Henry VI and his first major poem Venus and Adonis.

Yuri Gagarin (1934-68): A Russian cosmonaut. In 1961 he became the first man to travel in space. He completed one revolution around the earth in 89.34 minutes. He also holds the record of being the first person of fly at such a great height (340 km from the earth).

Z A Bhutto (1928-79): President of Pakistan in 1971 and subsequently Prime Minster of Pakistan. He was deposed by an army coup led by Zia-ul-Haq and executed in 1979.Zakir Hussain (1897-1969) : He was the third President of India (1957-69) and died in office in May 3, 1969. He was also India’s second Vice-President (1962-67).

Zoroaster (6th Cent. BC) : A celebrated Persian prophet and religious leader who lived in the 7th century BC. He is the founder of Zoroastrianism, whose followers comprise the Parsees settled in India.

 

Abbreviated Titles of Some Well Known Figures:        

 

    Original Name

     Also Called

    Adolf Hitler

     Fuehrer

    Benito Mussolini

     II Duce

    Duke of Wellington

     Iron Duke

    Dwight David Eisenhower

     Ike

    Earl of Warwick (Warwick)

     King Maker

    Gen Erwin Rommel

     Desert Fox

    Florence Nightingale

     Lady with the Lamp

    Francisco Franco

     El Caudillo

    Geoffery Chaucer

     Father of English Poetry

    George Bernard Shaw

     GBS

    Joan of Arc

     Maid of Orleans

    Napolean Bonaparte

     Little Corporal, Man of Destiny

    Otto von Bismarck

     Man of Blood and Iron, Iron

     Chancellor

    Queen Elizabeth I

     Maiden Queen

    Samuel Longhorn Patel

     Mark Twain

    Sir Walter Scott

     Wizard of the North

    William Ewart Gladstone

     Grand Old Man of Britain

    William Shakespeare

     Bard of Avon

    Younger Pitt

     Grand Commoner

 

  Well Known Freedom Fighters of World:

 

     Country

        Freedom Fighters

 

 Angola

       Antonio Agostinho Neto (1922-79)

       After Angola’s Liberation from

       Portugal, he became its first President.

     Bangladesh

       Sheikh Mujibur Rehman (1920-75)

       Proclaimed East Pakistan’s

       independence during General Ayub

       Khan’s government; was arrested and

       convicted of treason in 1971. With

       India’s intervention Bangladesh won

       independence, and he became Prime

       Minister in 1972. He was killed in a

       coup in 1975, on proclaiming himself

       President with dictatorial powers.

     China

        Mao Tse-Tung (1893-1976)

       Chinese communist leader, proclaimed

       the People’s Republic of China (1949)

       and became its Chairman.

     Cuba

       Fidel Castro

       Born in 1927, established the Socialist

       state, overthrew the regime of

       Fulgencio Batista and became head of

       The Cuban government in 1959.

     Cyprus

       Archbishop Makarios (1913-77)

       Primate of Orthodox Church of Cyprus;

       deported to Britain in 1956 for alleged

       support of the EOKA movement of toot

       out British rule. When Cyprus became

       an independent commonwealth republic,

       he was nominate President of his

       country.

     France

       Charles de Gaulle (1890-1970)

       Commander-in-Chief of the free French

       Forces an provisional President when

       France was liberated. He was elected

       first President of the Fifth Republic of

       France, gave a new Constitution to

       France and emerged as the most

       powerful man in France after Napolean.

     Ghana

       Kwame Nkrunah (1909-72)

       Instrumental in winning Ghana’s

       independence from UK (1957); he was

       the country’s first premier (1952-60).

       He became President in 1960 but was

       deposed and exiled after a military

       coup.

     Indonesia

       Ahmad Sukarno (1901-70)

       First President of Indonesia (1945-67),

       but was forced to relinquish office in

       1967 by General Suharto When the

       Army took over the country.

     Italy

(1)   Guiseppe Garibaldi (1807-82)

  A soldier and a nationalist leader, he

 captured Sicily and Naples (1860),

       both of which became part of Italy.

(2)   Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-72) 

       A revolutionary who stirred

          nationalist opinion in Italy.

     Kenya

       Jomo Kenyatta (1894-1978)

 

  He was the first President of

  Independent Kenya (1964-78). In 1947

  he became leader of the Kenya African

  Union, but was imprisoned by the

        British between 1952 61. He negotiated

        the independence of his country and

        was elected its President .

     South Africa

        Nelson Mandela (b. 1918)

        President of the African National

        Congress (ANC), who was imprisoned

        For 27 years for fighting apartheid

        (1964- 90) and bringing an end to the

        350 years  of colonial domination of

        white minority. On May 10, 1994 be

        became first black President of South

        Africa and established the first united

        non-racial and

       democratic government in the country.

     Soviet Union

       Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924)

       Revolutionary leader of his country, led

       the Bolshevik overthrow of Kerensky’s

       government in 1917 and was head of

       the  Soviet government till his death.

     Tanania

       Dr Julius Nyerere  (1922-99)

       After campaigning for Tanzania’s

       independence from the United Kingdom,

       he became its Premier in 1961 before

       taking over the office of President of the

       new independence republic in 1962. In

       1964 he negotiated the Union of

       Zanzibar to form the state of Tanzania.

     Turkey

       Kemal Ataturk (1881-1938)

       Founder of modern Turkey, known as

      ‘Father of the Turk’s , he organized the

       Turkish Nationalist  Party in 1919 and

       Set up a rival government to the

       Ottoman Sultan at Ankara. He was

       elected the first

       President of the Turkish republic in 1923

       after civil war and remained in that

       position till his death.

     United States of America

       George Washington (1732-99)

       American statesman and General; he

       commanded the American forces during

       the War of Independence (1775-83) and

       became the first President of USA

       (1789).

     Yugoshlavia

       Josip Broz Tito (Marshal) (1892-1980)

       Communist leader, he led the Yugoslav

       resistance to nazi occupation between

       1841- 45. After the war, Yugoslav

       monarchy was abolished and he became

       Prime Minister in 1945 and President in

       1953. In 1948 he broke up with the

       USSR and developed Yugoslavia’s own

       brand of national communism.

     Zaire

       Patrice Lumumba (1925-61)

       First Prime Minister (160-61) of the

       Congo (now Zaire), he fought to form a

       united Congo but was ousted and

       murdered in 1961.

     Zambia

       Kenneth (David) Kaunda

       Born in 1924; he led his country

       (formerly northern Rhodesia) to

       Complete  independence, under the

       name of Zambia in 1964, and became

       its President.