Countries

 GENERAL KNOWLEDGE (WORLD)

  COUNTRIES

 Countries and their Capital

Country

Capital

Country

Capital

Afghanistan

Kabul

Laos

Vientiane

Akrotiri

Episkopi Cantonment; also serves as capital of Dhekelia

Latvia

Riga

Albania

Tirana

Lebanon

Beirut

Algeria

Algiers

Lesotho

Maseru

American Samoa

Pago Pago

Liberia

Monrovia

Andorra

Andorra la Vella

Libya

Tripoli

Angola

Luanda

Liechtenstein

Vaduz

Anguilla

The Valley

Lithuania

Vilnius

Antigua and Barbuda

Saint John's (Antigua)

Luxembourg

Luxembourg

Argentina

Buenos Aires

Macedonia

Skopje

Armenia

Yerevan

Madagascar

Antananarivo

Aruba

Oranjestad

Malawi

Lilongwe

Australia

Canberra

Malaysia

Kuala Lumpur

Austria

Vienna

 

note: Putrajaya is referred to as administrative center not capital; Parliament meets in Kuala Lumpur

Azerbaijan

Baku (Baki)

Maldives

Male

Bahamas, The

Nassau

Mali

Bamako

Bahrain

Manama

Malta

Valletta

Bangladesh

Dhaka

Marshall Islands

Majuro

Barbados

Bridgetown

Martinique

Fort-de-France

Belarus

Minsk

Mauritania

Nouakchott

Belgium

Brussels

Mauritius

Port Louis

Belize

Belmopan

Mayotte

Mamoutzou

Benin

Porto-Novo is the official capital; Cotonou is the seat of government

Mexico

Mexico (Distrito Federal)

Bermuda

Hamilton

Micronesia, Federated States of

Palikir

Bhutan

Thimphu

Moldova

Chisinau

Bolivia

La Paz (seat of government); Sucre (legal capital and seat of judiciary)

Monaco

Monaco

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Sarajevo

Mongolia

Ulaanbaatar

Botswana

Gaborone

Montserrat

Plymouth (abandoned in 1997 due to volcanic activity; interim government buildings have been built at Brades Estate, in the Carr's Bay/Little Bay vicinity at the northwest end of Montserrat)

Brazil

Brasilia

Morocco

Rabat

British Virgin Islands

Road Town

Mozambique

Maputo

Brunei

Bandar Seri Begawan

Namibia

Windhoek

Bulgaria

Sofia

Nauru

no official capital; government offices in Yaren District

Burkina Faso

Ouagadougou

Nepal

Kathmandu

Burma

Rangoon (government refers to capital as Yangon)

Netherlands

Amsterdam; The Hague is the seat of government

 

Note: junta began shifting seat of government to Pyinmana area of central Burma in November 2005

Netherlands Antilles

Willemstad; note - located on Curacao, the largest of the islands

Burundi

Bujumbura

New Caledonia

Noumea

Cambodia

Phnom Penh

New Zealand

Wellington

Cameroon

Yaounde

Nicaragua

Managua

Canada

Ottawa

Niger

Niamey

Cape Verde

Praia

Nigeria

Abuja; note - on 12 December 1991 the capital was officially transferred from Lagos to Abuja; most federal government offices have now moved to Abuja

Cayman Islands

George Town (Grand Cayman)

Niue

Alofi

Central African Republic

Bangui

Norfolk Island

Kingston

Chad

N'Djamena

Northern Mariana Islands

Saipan

Chile

Santiago

Norway

Oslo

China

Beijing

Oman

Muscat

Christmas Island

The Settlement

Pakistan

Islamabad

Cocos (Keeling) Islands

West Island

Palau

Koror; note - a new capital is being built about 20 km northeast of Koror

Colombia

Bogota

Panama

Panama

Comoros

Moroni

Papua New Guinea

Port Moresby

Congo, Democratic Republic of the

Kinshasa

Paraguay

Asuncion

Congo, Republic of the

Brazzaville

Peru

Lima

Cook Islands

Avarua

Philippines

Manila

Costa Rica

San Jose

Pitcairn Islands

Adamstown

Cote d'Ivoire

Yamoussoukro; note - although Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983, Abidjan remains the commercial and administrative center; the US, like other countries, maintains its Embassy in Abidjan

Poland

Warsaw

Croatia

Zagreb

Portugal

Lisbon

Cuba

Havana

Puerto Rico

San Juan

Cyprus

Nicosia

Qatar

Doha

Czech Republic

Prague

Reunion

Saint-Denis

Denmark

Copenhagen

Romania

Bucharest

Dhekelia

Episkopi Cantonment; located in Akrotiri

Russia

Moscow

Djibouti

Djibouti

Rwanda

Kigali

Dominica

Roseau

Saint Helena

Jamestown

Dominican Republic

Santo Domingo

Saint Kitts and Nevis

Basseterre

East Timor

Dili

Saint Lucia

Castries

Ecuador

Quito

Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Saint-Pierre

Egypt

Cairo

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Kingstown

El Salvador

San Salvador

Samoa

Apia

Equatorial Guinea

Malabo

San Marino

San Marino

Eritrea

Asmara

Sao Tome and Principe

Sao Tome

Estonia

Tallinn

Saudi Arabia

Riyadh

Ethiopia

Addis Ababa

Senegal

Dakar

European Union

Brussels, Belgium

Serbia and Montenegro

Belgrade

 

note: the Council of the European Union meets in Brussels, the European Parliament meets in Strasbourg, France, and the Court of Justice of the European Communities meets in Luxembourg

Seychelles

Victoria

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

Stanley

Sierra Leone

Freetown

Faroe Islands

Torshavn

Singapore

Singapore

Fiji

Suva (Viti Levu)

Slovakia

Bratislava

Finland

Helsinki

Slovenia

Ljubljana

France

Paris

Solomon Islands

Honiara

French Guiana

Cayenne

Somalia

Mogadishu

French Polynesia

Papeete

South Africa

Pretoria; note - Cape Town is the legislative center and Bloemfontein the judicial center

Gabon

Libreville

Spain

Madrid

Gambia, The

Banjul

Sri Lanka

Colombo; note - Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte is the legislative capital

Georgia

T'bilisi

Sudan

Khartoum

Germany

Berlin

Suriname

Paramaribo

Ghana

Accra

Svalbard

Longyearbyen

Gibraltar

Gibraltar

Swaziland

Mbabane; note - Lobamba is the royal and legislative capital

Greece

Athens

Sweden

Stockholm

Greenland

Nuuk (Godthab)

Switzerland

Bern

Grenada

Saint George's

Syria

Damascus

Guadeloupe

Basse-Terre

Taiwan

Taipei

Guam

Hagatna (Agana)

Tajikistan

Dushanbe

Guatemala

Guatemala

Tanzania

Dar es Salaam; note - legislative offices have been transferred to Dodoma, which is planned as the new national capital; the National Assembly now meets there on regular basis

Guernsey

Saint Peter Port

Thailand

Bangkok

Guinea

Conakry

Togo

Lome

Guinea-Bissau

Bissau

Tokelau

none; each atoll has its own administrative center

Guyana

Georgetown

Tonga

Nuku'alofa

Haiti

Port-au-Prince

Trinidad and Tobago

Port-of-Spain

Holy See (Vatican City)

Vatican City

Tunisia

Tunis

Honduras

Tegucigalpa

Turkey

Ankara

Hungary

Budapest

Turkmenistan

Ashgabat

Iceland

Reykjavik

Turks and Caicos Islands

Grand Turk

India

New Delhi

Tuvalu

Funafuti; note - administrative offices are located in Vaiaku Village on Fongafale Islet

Indonesia

Jakarta

Uganda

Kampala

Iran

Tehran

Ukraine

Kiev (Kyyiv)

Iraq

Baghdad

United Arab Emirates

Abu Dhabi

Ireland

Dublin

United Kingdom

London

Isle of Man

Douglas

United States

Washington, DC

Israel

Jerusalem; note - Israel proclaimed Jerusalem as its capital in 1950, but the US, like nearly all other countries, maintains its Embassy in Tel Aviv

Uruguay

Montevideo

Italy

Rome

Uzbekistan

Tashkent (Toshkent)

Jamaica

Kingston

Vanuatu

Port-Vila (Efate)

Japan

Tokyo

Venezuela

Caracas

Jersey

Saint Helier

Vietnam

Hanoi

Jordan

'Amman

Virgin Islands

Charlotte Amalie

Kazakhstan

Astana; note - the government moved from Almaty to Astana in December 1998

Wallis and Futuna

Mata-Utu (on Ile Uvea)

Kenya

Nairobi

Western Sahara

none

Kiribati

Tarawa

Yemen

Sanaa

Korea, North

Pyongyang

Zambia

Lusaka

Korea, South

Seoul

Zimbabwe

Harare

Kuwait

Kuwait

   

Kyrgyzstan

Bishkek

   

 

 

1.4.2 Countries and Their Emblems

 

 

Country

Emblem

Country

Emblem

Australia

Kangaroo,Wattle (Australian)

Luxembourg

Lion with crown

Bangladesh

Water Lily

Mongolia

The Soyombo (symbol for

Freedom and independence)

Barbados

Head of a trident

 

Belgium

Lion

Netherlands, the

Lion

Canada

White Lily, Flower Emblem: Maple leaf

New Zealand

Southern cross, Fern, Kiwi

Chile

Condor and heumul (small

American deer)

Pakistan

Crescent, Jasmine

Denmark

Beach

Poland

Eagle

Dominica

Sisserou Parrot

San Marino

Feathers

Germany

Eagle/Corn flower

Spain

Eagle, Flower Emblem:

France

Lily

 

Pomergranate

Guyana

Canje pheasant

Senegal

Baobab tree

India

Lioned Capitol, Flower Emblem:Lotus

Sierra Leone

Sri Lanka

Lion

Lion

Iran

Rose

Sudan

Secretary Bird

Ireland

Shamrock (Harp)

Swaziland

Lion and Elephant

Israel

Candelabrum

Syria

Eagle

Italy

White Lily

Trinidad  and Tobago

Humming bird

Ivory Coast

Elephant

Turkey

Crescent and Star

Japan

Chrysanthemum

United Kingdom

Rose

Hong Kong

Bauhinta (Orchid tree)

USA

Golden Rod, Bald Eagle

Lebanon

Cedar tree

Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe Bird

 

1.4.3 Countries and Their Parliaments

 

Country

Name of Parliament

Country

Name of Parliament

Afghanistan

Shora

Israel

Knesset

Ablania

People’s Assembly

Japan

Diet

Algeria

National Popular Assembly

Jordan

National Assembly

Angola

National Popular Assembly

Kenya

National Assembly

Argentina

National Congress

Kuwait

National Assembly

Australia

Federal Parliament

Laos

People’s Supreme Assembly

Austria

Bundesversammlung

Liberia

National Assembly

Bahamas

General Assembly

Libya

General People’s Congress

Bangladesh

Jatiya Sangshad

Malaysia

Dewan Rakyat and Dewan  N

Belize

National Assembly

Maldives

Majlis

Benin

National Revolutionary Assembly

Mongolia

Great People’s Khural

Bhutan

Tsongdu

Mozambique

People’s Assembly

Bolivia

National Congress

Myanmar

Pyithu Hluttaw

Botswana

National Assembly

Nepal

National Panchayat

Brazil

National Congress

The Netherlands

The Staten General

Britain

Parliament (House of Commons and House of Lords)

New Zealand

Parliament (House of Represen-Tatives)

Bulgaria

Narodna Subranie

Norway

Storting

Cambodia

National Assembly

Papua New Guinea

National Parliament

Canada

Parliament (of Commons &

Senate)

Poland

Sejm

Cape Verde

People’s National Assembly

Romania

Grand National Assembly

China, Mainland

National People’ Congress

Senegal

National Assembly

China, National

Yuan (National Assembly)

Seychelles

People’s Assembly

Columbia

Congress

Somalia

People’s Assembly

Cuba

National Assembly of People’s

Power

South Africa

House of Assembly

Denmark

Folketing

Spain

Cortes

Ethiopia

Shergo

Sudan

National Assembly

Egypt

People’s Assembly

Surinam

Staten

Finland

Eduskusta

Swaziland

Liblandia

France

National Assembly

Sweden

Riksdag

Germany

Bundestag (Lower House)

Switzerland

Federal Assembly (Nationairat

And Standerat Bundesver

Sammilung) People’s Council

Greenland

Landstraad

Syria

People’s Council

Guyana

National Assembly

Tunisia

National Assembly

Hungary

National Assembly

Turkey

Grand National Assembly

Iceland

Althing

United States

Congress(House  of

Representative and Senate)

 

India

Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha

Indonesia

People’s Constultative Assembly

Vanuatu

Representative Assembly

Iran

Majlis

Venezuela

National Congress

Iraq

National Assembly

Vietnam

National Assembly

Ireland

Oireachtas or National Parliament(Dail Eireann: House of Represe-Tatives and Seanad Eireann: Senate)

Yugoslavia

Zaire

Zambia

Federal Assembly

National Legislative Council

National Assembly

 

 

1.4.4 Lines and Boundaries

 

Durand Line           It is the line demarcating the boundaries of India and Afghanistan, It was drawn up in 1896 by Sir Mortimer Durand. India recognizes the Durand Line but Afghanistan has yet not recognized it.

 

Hindenburg Line      It is the boundary dividing Germany and Poland. The Germans retreated to this line in 1917 during World War I.

 

Marginal Line           A 320 km line of fortification built by France along its border with Germany before World War II, to protect its boundary from German attack.

 

Mannerheim Line     It is the line of fortification on the russia-Finland border. Drawn up by General Mannerheim.

 

MacMahon Line        Drawn up by sir Henry MacMohon, it demarcates the frontier of India and China. China did not recognize the MacMohan line and crossed it in 1962.

Order-Neisse Line  It is the border between Poland and Germany, running along the order and Neisse rivers; adopted  at the Poland Conference (Aug 1945) after World War II, It was recognized by  Poland and former  East Germany in 1950 and  by former West Germany in 1970.

 

Radcliffe Line         Drawn up by Sir Cyril Radcliffe this line demarcates the boundary between India and Pakistan.

 

Slegfried Line           Is the line of fortification drawn up by Germany on its border with France.

 

17th Parallel           The 17th parallel defined the boundary between North Vietnam and South vietnam before the two were united.

 

24th Parallel           Is the line which Pakistan claims for demarcation between India and Pakistan. This, however, is not recognized by  India.

                   

38th Parallel           Is the parallel of latitude which separates North Korea and South Korea.

49th Parallel           The boundary between USA and Canada.            

 

1.4.5 Minerals and Producing Countries

 

 

Mineral

Countries

Mineral

Countries

Aluminium (Bauxite)

Australia, Guinea, Jamaica, Surinam, Brazil, Venezuela, Guyana, Malaysia, Indonesia, India,China,USA,Greece, Nungary                 

Lignite

Germany, Russia

Magnesium

 

 

CIS, India, Russia, Mexico, Ivory Coast, South Africa, Gabon, Australia, France, Brazil.

Mercury

Italy, Spain, USA

Asbestos

Canada, Zimbabwe, South Africaa

 Mica

India

Chromium

India, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Turkey, CIS        

 

 

Coal

USA, Russia, China, Germany, UK, France, Poland, Belgium, Australia, India, CIS, South Africa

Nickel

Canada, CIS, Norway, Dominican Republic

Copper

Chile, USA, Russia, China, Germany, Zambia, Zaire, Canada, Spain, Mexico, Japan, Australia, India, Indonesia, CIS, Peru, Poland, Congo Dem. Rep.        

Petroleum

Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iran, Iraq, Qatar, UAE, Libya, Algeria, Nigeria, Niger, Egypt, USA, Russia, Indonesia

Gold

South Africa, USA, Australia, Canada , Sri Lanka

Platinum

Russia, Columbia

Silver

Canada, Russia, Mexico, USA, Australia, CIS

Tin

Malaysia, Bolivia, China, Brazil, Indonesia

Thorium

India, Brazil and USA

Titanium

Australia, Norway, CIS

Iron Ore

CIS, Russia, USA, Australia, Canada, UK, Sweden, France, Germany, Lineria, South Africa, Venezuela, Mauritania, Spain, India, China, Brazil

Uranium

 

Zaire, South Africa, USA, Canada, Germany,   Czech, Slovakia, Russia, India

Lead

CIS, USA, Russia, Spain, Germany,

Australia, Belgium, Mexico, Canada, Peru

Zinc

 

 

Canada, Russia, Belgium, Germany, CIS, Peru, Mexico, Spain

 

 

 

Item Exported         Chief Exporter

Item Exported         Chief Exporter

Aluminium

USA

Jute

Bangladesh/India

 Coal

USA

Manganese

Russia

Coffee

Brazil

Mica

India

Copper

USA

Rice

China

Cotton

USA

Rubber

Malaysia

Gold

South Africa

Silver

     Mexico

Iron Ore

USA

 Sugar

     Indonesia

 Tin

      Malaysia

 Wood

     Australia

 Wheat

      USA

 

 

 

 

Industry

Chief Manufacturing Countries

Iron and Steel

USA, Russia, Japan, Germany, UK, France and India

Textiles (Cotton)

USA, China, India, Japan, Russia, UK< Taiwan, Canada, Egypt, France and Italy

Textiles(Woollen)

 

Russia,UK, Japan, Australia, India, France, Poland, Belgium, Czech Republic, Slovakia,     

           Germany, Bulgaria

Chemicals

USA, Germany, UK, Russia, Japan, Canada, Australia and India

Paper

USA, Canada, Japan, UK, Germany, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Russia and India

Rubber

USA, UK, Germany, France, Netherlands, Australia, Canada, Brazil, Indonesia, Sri Lanka

 

1.4.6 Major Industrial Towns

 

        

Town

Country

Type of Industry

Aberdeen

Scotland (UK)

Granite mining

Abadan

Iran

Oil refineries

Baku

Azerbaijan

Petroleum

Bangkok

Thailand

Shipping

Belfast

N. Ireland (Ulster)

Shipbuilding, linen

Buenos Aires

Argentina

Dairy products

Cadiz

Spain

Cork

Chicago

USA

Gramophone, agriculture implements, meat products

Dhaka

Bangladesh

Jute

Detroit

USA

Automobiles

Dresden

Germany

Optical and photographic instruments

Dundee

(Scotland) UK

Jute, linen

Essex

England (UK)

Engineering works

Geneva

Switzerland

Watches       

Glasgow

Scotland (UK)

Machinery, Textiles

Havana

Cuba

Cigars, Sugar

Hollywood

USA

Films

Johannesburg

S. Africa

Gold mines

Kansas

USA

Meat packing

Leeds

England (UK)

Woolen garments

Los Angeles

USA

Meat packing

Lyons

France

Silk

Melbourne

Australia

Chocolate

Milan

Italy

Silk

New Orleans

USA

Cotton

Northampton

UK

Leather goods

Oporto

Portugal

Wine  

Oslo

Norway

Paper

Ottawa

Canada

Paper

Pittsburgh

USA

Iron and Steel         

Plymouth

England (UK)

Shipbuilding

Port Louis

Mauritius

Sugar

Sheffield

England (UK)

Cutlery

Rotterdam

Netherlands

Shipbuilding

Tehran

Iran

Carpets

Tokyo

Japan

Rayon and Textiles

Venice

Italy

Glass

Wellington

New Zealand

Dairy Products

Yenang Yaung

Myanmar

Oil fields

       

 

1.4.7 Major Riverside Cities

 

City

River

Country

Alexandria

Nile

Egypt

Amsterdam

Amsel

Netherlands

Ankara

Kizil

Turkey

Baghdad

Tigris

Iraq

Bangkok

Menam

Thailand

Belgrade

Danube

Yugoslavia

Berlin

Spree

Germany

Budapest

Danube

Hungary

Cairo

Nile

Egypt

Chittagong

Kamphuli

Bangladesh

Glasgow

Clyde

Scotland

Hamberge

Elbe

Germany

Karachi

Indus

Pakistan

Khartoum

Blue and White Nile

Sudan

Lahore

Ravi

Pakistan

Lisbon

Tagus

Portugal

Liverpool

Mersev

England

London

Thames

England

Moscow

Moskva

Russia

New Orieans

Mississpi

USA

New York

Hudson

USA

Paris

Seine

France

Rangoon

Irawadi

Myanmar

Rome

Tiber

Itlay

Washington

Potomac

U.S.A

 

   

 1.4.8 Tribes and Races

 

     

 Abhors

         Mongolians living in the Assam region

Afridis

         Inhabitants of the north-west frontier in   

         Pakistan

Afrikaner

         Dutch-born South African race

Anglo-Saxons

         People who invaded Britain after the withdrawal of the Romans 410 AD. Now living in  England, Canada, USA and Australia

Bedouins

         Wandering tribe of Arabia and North Africa

Bhils

         Ancient Dravidians of central India

Cossacks

         Inhabitants of southern and eastern frontiers of   Russia

Croats

         Inhabitants of Croatia         

 Dravidians

         Ancient people of South India (Non-Aryans)

 Eskimos

         Inhabitants of the Arctic circle and Greenland

 Filipinos

         Natives of Philippines

 Flemish

         Term used for the Inhabitants of Belgium

Garos

         Hill tribe of Assam

Gorkhas

         Martial race of Nepal

Hottentot

         Pastoral nomads of south-west  Africa

Kaffris

         Martial race of South Africa                

Kardars

          Descendants of Austric race, now living in the forests of central and northern India                                  

 Khasis

         Tribe of Meghalaya                                

 Khirgiz

         Tribe living in Central Asia                   

 Kiwis

         People of New Zealand                         

Magyars

         Inhabitants of Hungary                        

Masuds

         Tribe living in Waziristan (Pakistan)    

Maoris

         Natives of New Zealand                       

Moor

         A mixed tribe of Arab and Berber people of

         Morocco                                                   

Negroes

         Dark-skinned race of Africa           

Nipponese

         People living in Japan                            

Red Indians

         Original inhabitants of North America; (named so by Columbus who thought that he had discovered India)                               

Sherpas

         Tribe On the border of Tibet and Nepal                        

 Slovenes

         People living in former Yugoslavia of Slavic

         origin

Swahili

         People living in parts of Kenya and Tanzania

Todas

         Natives of Nilgiri Hills

Zulus

          People living in South Africa Belonging to the Bantu family