Music

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE (INDIA)

 MUSIC

In India, there is a vast profusion of folk music which varies according to locality. Though folk songs also follow the same base, classical music requires immense training & practice. In Indian music, musical sound is called nada & nada is considered as Brahman or Divine Reality itself. Classical Indian music can be classified into two distinct categories, the North Indian or Hindustani & the South Indian or Carnatic music. The essential features & basis of both the styles are the same, in the sense that both are spiritualistic in nature. Foreign influences due to invasions by Persians, Arabs,.. are more evident in the Hindustani form. There has been a constant intermingling & the styles that have evolved are the products of these various currents.  

Hindustani classical music

        Principles of Hindustani music

The rhythmic organization is based on rhythmic patterns called Taal. The melodic foundations are "melodic modes", or "Parent Scales", known as Thaats, under which most ragas can be classified based on the notes they use.

Thaats may consist of up to seven scale degrees, or swara. Hindustani musicians name these pitches using a system called Sargam, the equivalent of Western movable do solfege.

         Vocal music

Hindustani classical music is primarily vocal-centric, insofar as the musical forms were designed primarily for vocal performance, and many instruments were designed and evaluated as to how well they emulate the human voice.

         Types of compositions

The major vocal forms-cum-styles associated with Hindustani classical music are Dhrupad, Khayal, and Tarana. Other forms include Dhamar, Trivat, Chaiti, Kajari, Tappa, Tap-Khayal, Ashtapadis, Thumri, Dadra, Ghazal and Bhajan. Of these, some forms fall within the crossover to folk or semi-classical or light classical music, as they often do not adhere to the rigorous rules and regulations of classical music.

         Instrumental music

Although Hindustani music clearly is focused on the vocal performance, instrumental forms have existed since ancient times. In fact, in recent decades, especially outside South Asia, instrumental Hindustani music is more popular than vocal music, partly due to a somewhat different style and partly because of a language barrier for the lyrics in vocal music.

A number of musical instruments are associated with Hindustani classical music.

Some representative performers :

Veena: Dabir Khann, Birendra Kishore Roy Chowdhury, Zia Mohiuddin Dagar, Bahauddin Dagar, Asad Ali Khan, Suvir Misra

Vichitra Veena: Dr. Lalmani Misra, Pt. Gopal Krishna, Dr. Gopal Shankar Misra, Radhika Budhkar

Sitar: Imdad Khan, Enayet Khan, Wahid Khan, Mushtaq Ali Khan, Ravi Shankar, Vilayat Khan, Nikhil Banerjee, Shujaat Khan, Nishat Khan, Manilal Nag, Rais Khan, Abdul Halim Jaffer Khan, Imrat Khan, Shahid Parvez, Kalyani Roy, Budhaditya Mukherjee

Sarod: Allauddin Khan, Brij Narayan, Hafiz Ali Khan, Radhika Mohan Moitra, Timir Baran, Ali Akbar Khan, Buddhadev Das Gupta, Vasant Rai, Sharan Rani, Dhyanesh Khan, Aashish Khan, Amjad Ali Khan

Surbahar: Imdad Khan, Wahid Khan, Enayet Khan, Annapurna Devi, Imrat Khan

Shehnai: Bismillah Khan, Ali Ahmed Khan

Bansuri: Pannalal Ghosh, Nityanand Haldipur, Hariprasad Chaurasia, Ronu Majumdar, Raghunath Seth, Bari Siddiqui, Pravin Godkhindi, Milind Date

Santoor: Shivkumar Sharma, Bhajan Sopori, Omprakash Chaurasiya

Sarangi: Ram Narayan, Bundu Khan, Sultan Khan, Abdul Latif Khan

Esraj: Satya Kinkar Bandyopadhyay, Ashesh Bandopadhyay, Ranadhir Roy

Violin: Parur Sundaram Iyer, V. G. Jog, Gajananrao Joshi, N. Rajam, Sangeeta Shankar, Allaudin Khan, Lakshmi Shankar, Kala Ramnath, D.H.Joglekar

Harmonium: Gyan Prakash Ghosh, Appa Jalgaonkar, Zamir Ahmed Khan, Bhure Khan

Tabla: Ahmed Jan Thirakwa, Gyan Prokash Ghosh, Shyamal Bose, Shankar Ghosh, Anindo Chaterjee, Chatur Lal, Shamta Prasad, Kanthe Maharaj, Alla Rakha, Anokhelal Misra, Keramatullah Khan, Kishan Maharaj, Zakir Hussain, Debashis Choudhury, Samar Saha.

Jaltarang: Ragini Trivedi, Milind Tulankar

Samvadini: Pt. Manohar Chimote, Rajendra Vaishampayan, Pt. Jitendra Gore

Guitar, slide (modified), or mohan veena: Brij Bhushan Kabra, Vishwa Mohan Bhatt, Dr. Kamala Shankar, Debashish Bhattacharya, Nalin Mazumdar of Allahabad, Neelranjan Mukherjee of Benaras presently in Delhi.

         Prominent performers

Vocalists: Girija Devi, Kesarbai Kerkar, Bade Ghulam Ali Khan, Faiyaz Khan, Amir Khan, Abdul Karim Khan, Akhtar Sadmani, Vasantrao Deshpande, Gokulotsavji Maharaj, D. V. Paluskar, Salamat Ali Khan, Mallikarjun Mansur, Omkarnath Thakur, Gangubai Hangal, Bhimsen Joshi, Kishori Amonkar, Kumar Gandharva, Gundecha Brothers, Jasraj, Nityanand Haldipur, Shruti Sadolikar-Katkar, Rajan and Sajan Mishra, Ulhas Kashalkar, Malini Rajurkar, Prabha Atre, Dhondutai Kulkarni, Sharafat Hussain Khan

Instrumentalists: Allauddin Khan, Radhika Mohan Maitra, Vasant Rai, Vilayat Khan, Bismillah Khan, Ravi Shankar, Nikhil Banerjee, Ali Akbar Khan, Pannalal Ghosh, Hariprasad Chaurasia, Zakir Hussain, Shivkumar Sharma, Annapurna Devi, Vijay Raghav Rao

Carnatic music

Carnatic music  is a system of music commonly associated with the southern part of the Indian subcontinent, with its area roughly confined to four modern states of India: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu. It is one of two main sub-genres of Indian classical music that evolved from ancient Hindu traditions..

Carnatic music is usually performed by a small ensemble of musicians, consisting of a principal performer (usually a vocalist), a melodic accompaniment (usually a violin), a rhythm accompaniment (usually a mridangam), and a tambura which acts as a drone throughout the performance. Other typical instruments used in performances may include the ghatam, kanjira, morsing, veena & flute.

Important elements of Carnatic music:

Śruti , Swara ,Raga system ,Tala system ,Improvisation ,Raga Alapana,Niraval,Kalpanaswaram, Tanam , Ragam Tanam Pallavi ,Thani Avarthanam ,Compositions ,Varnam ,Kriti