Geography (Bihar)

Bihar, located in eastern India, boasts a diverse geographical landscape encompassing the fertile plains of the Gangetic basin, the Himalayan foothills, and the Plateau region. This study guide provides an overview of the geography of Bihar.

  1. Location:

    • Bihar is situated in the eastern part of India.
    • It is landlocked and shares its borders with Nepal in the north, West Bengal in the east, Uttar Pradesh in the west, and Jharkhand in the south.
  2. Topography:

    • Bihar's topography is varied, ranging from the flat plains of the Gangetic basin to the hilly regions in the southern part and the Himalayan foothills in the north.
    • The Gangetic plain covers a significant portion, making it fertile and suitable for agriculture.
  3. Major Rivers:

    • The Ganges (Ganga), the Yamuna, the Sone, and the Gandak are the major rivers flowing through Bihar.
    • The Ganges, in particular, plays a crucial role in the state's irrigation and transportation.
  4. Natural Divisions:

    • Bihar can be divided into four natural divisions: a. The North Bihar Plain: Includes the Gangetic plain and is highly fertile due to the alluvial soil deposited by the Ganges and other rivers. b. The South Bihar Plateau: Comprises Chota Nagpur Plateau and the Santhal Parganas. It is characterized by hills and plateaus. c. The North Bihar Mountains: Includes the Himalayan foothills and is less populated due to its rugged terrain and forest cover. d. The Kosi Alluvial Plain: Lies to the east of the Gandak River and is prone to flooding due to the meandering Kosi River.
  5. Climate:

    • Bihar experiences a subtropical climate with three main seasons: summer, monsoon, and winter.
    • Summers are hot and dry, with temperatures often exceeding 40°C (104°F).
    • Monsoons, from June to September, bring heavy rainfall, essential for agriculture.
    • Winters are relatively cool and pleasant, with temperatures ranging from 5°C to 15°C (41°F to 59°F).
  6. Flora and Fauna:

    • Bihar's flora consists of a variety of vegetation, including tropical and subtropical trees, shrubs, and grasses.
    • Fauna includes tigers, leopards, elephants, bears, deer, and various bird species.
    • The Valmiki National Park and Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary are important conservation areas.
  7. Agriculture:

    • Bihar's fertile Gangetic plain is suitable for agriculture, producing a variety of crops such as rice, wheat, maize, pulses, sugarcane, and jute.
    • The state is known as the "Granary of India" due to its significant food production.
  8. Natural Resources:

    • Bihar is rich in minerals like limestone, bauxite, mica, gypsum, coal, and iron ore.
    • Its rivers provide hydroelectric power potential, contributing to the state's energy resources.