English Vocabulary (Part-2)

9.3 ANALOGIES

Analogies, in a narrower sense, are a test of vocabulary. In a broader sense, however, they test the ability to see relationship between the meanings of words. First, a pair of words is given. These words are related to each other in a certain manner. You have to spot this relationship accurately and to identify, among the given words or word pairs, the ones that are similarly related.

Example:

       TRUTH: FALSEHOOD:: VIRTUE: ?

       1. Goodness                2. Vice            3. Altruism                 4. Veracity

Ans :( 2)

Explanation:

In this example you have to determine which of the given words has the same relationship to ‘virtue’, as ‘truth’ has to ‘falsehood’.

The surest way to do this is to first spot the relationship. Once you spot what the relationship is, (in this case, that of opposite) it becomes easy to note that the opposite of ‘virtue’ is [2] ‘vice’. Do not read the alternatives till you have first determined the relationship between the capitalized pair.

9.3.1 Some Common Relationships:

1. CAUSE: EFFECT

    LIQUOR: INTOXICATION

    Liquor causes intoxication

2. OBJECT: PURPOSE

    CORK: BOTTLE

    A cork is used to close a bottle.

3. PART: WHOLE

    BOOK: LITERATURE

    A book is part of literature.

4. PART: PART

    FINGER: HAND

    Finger is a part of a hand, which again is part of a larger body.

5. OBJECT TO ACTION

    GUN: FIRE

    You fire a gun.

6. ACTION TO OBJECT/ PHENOMENON

    EAT: FOOD

    You eat food.

7. SYNONYMS

    SLIM: THIN

    Thin is the synonym of slim.

8. ANTONYMS

    RELIGIOUS: ATHEIST

    A religious person believes in god, while an atheist is a non-believer. The pair is therefore   

    antonymous.

9. DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS

    JACKAL: SLY

    A jackal has the characteristic of being sly.   

10. CLASS: MEMBER

      MAMMAL: MAN

      Man falls under the class of Mammals.

11. MANNER: ACTIVTITY

      RAMBLE: SPEAK

      Rambling is speaking in an incoherent manner.

12. ACTION: ITS SIGNIFICANCE

      BLUSH: EMBARASSMENT

      A blush signifies embarrassment.

13. WORKER: WORKPLACE

      PRIEST: CHAPEL

      The main workplace of a priest is the chapel. 

14. SPATIAL: SEPARATION

      LADAKH: KANYAKUMARI

       They are spatially separated so that they are at the extreme North and extreme South of India.

15. SYMBOL: QUALITY

      WHITE: PEACE

      White symbolizes peace.

16. DEGREES

      COOL: COLD

      Cold is of a higher degree than cool.

9.3.2 Strategies for Analogies:

1. Define the Relationship:

In the analogy questions, to avoid going wrong, the first step is to define the relationship between the two key words. The relationship should be defined either on paper or in your mind in the form of a sentence. Until then, don’t look at the answer options. Once the relationship is defined, then search for an option where a similar kind of sentence can be formed connecting the two words meaningfully.

Example:

  ANXIOUS         :   REASSURANCE

1. resentful        :   gratitude

2. perplexed       :   clarification

3. inured            :   imagination

4. vociferous       :   suppression

Explanation:

The relationship between the two capitalized words can be expressed as: “an anxious person requires reassurance”; similarly, “a perplexed person requires clarification”.

2. The “all that glitter is not gold” principle:

Often question setters give answer options which have apparent subject similarities. These answers will straightaway attract your attention. But going by similarity of subjects or issues, more often than not, these are just to deceive you.

Example:

   STUTTER         :      SPEECH

1. Blare              :      Hearing

2. Aroma            :      Smelling

3. Astigmatism    :      Sight

4. Novocain         :      Touch

Explanation:

A stutter is a defect of speech. Similarly, in [3], Astigmatism is a defect of the sight. So [3] is the answer. But choice [1] ‘Blare: Hearing” is an option which immediately attracts the attraction, as it is closely related to hearing. But then, blare is not a defect of hearing. Hence, [3].

3. Beyond the obvious meaning:

Sometimes one of the capitalized words in the Analogy will have a secondary meaning which is uncommon. Going by the common meaning of the word, you could get confused in defining the relationship.

Example:

   ANNEX          :          BUILDING

1. Postscript     :          Letter

2. Lyric            :          Song

3. Paragraph    :          Text

4. Hill              :          Mountain

Explanation:

The common meaning of annex is to add, append or take possession of. But here adding or taking possession of a building is not the relationship. Annex has another meaning of “supplementary building”. Similarly, a postscript is a supplementary part of the letter.

4. Thinner line of distinction:

Often in defining a relationship we come up with a very broad defining relationship and then subsequently get more than one option which suits the relationship. This is an indication of the fact that we have to narrow down our definition to more precise terms.

Example:

   DIAMETER     :          CIRCLE

1. Diagonal       :          Rectangle

2. Equator        :          Hemisphere

3. Altitude        :          Triangle

4. Noon            :          Day

Explanation:

In this question if the relation is that “the diameter divides the circle into two equal parts”, then options [1], [2] and [4] all look attractive enough to be the answer. Diagonal, Equator and noon divide rectangle, hemisphere and day into two equal parts respectively. So we have to look for a thinner line of distinction. Going back to the main relationship, one can define it as “a diameter is a line dividing the circle, which is a linear figure, into two equal parts”. This definition rules out the choices [2] and [4] because a Hemisphere is not a linear figure, and also because the Equator is not a line which passes through the Center of the Earth; rather, it is an imagery circular line which divides the Earth into two equal parts. In [4], noon is not a line dividing the day into two equal halves. Thus [1] is the answer. Here we have arrived at the answer through the process of elimination which is a very useful device in such cases. 

5. A grammatical relationship:

It is often important to see what parts of speech are the capitalized words. There are certain words which are different parts of speech depending on their usage

Example

   MAROON        :           SAILOR

1. Red               :           Ship

2. Crimson         :           Flower

3. Stranded        :           Tourist

4. Color              :           Dress

Explanation:

The word maroon has two meanings, one referring to the color maroon which is a noun. Another is the verb-the meaning being “to abandon” or “to strand”. Obviously, the relationship is not of a sailor to the maroon color. It is about a sailor who has been abandoned. Similarly “a tourist gets stranded”. The other options are only Eye-catchers trying to decoy you. Hence,[3]. 

Exercise for practice

1. VACCINATION: DISEASE

     (A) civil servant: furlough                            (B) furnace: heat

     (C)  fortification: enemy                              (D) vacation: tourist

     (E)  band: music

2.  DILATE : CONTRACT

     (A) hock : pawn                                         (B)  wax : wane

     (C) contaminate : spread                             (D)  intrude : disturb

     (E)  scribble : write

3.  TOM HAWK : RED INDIANS

      (A) wheel : Mayans                                   (B) chariot : Indus people

      (C)  boomerang: Australian aborigines           (D) rocket: Russians

      (E)  skirt : Scotland 

4.   LAUDATORY : DEFAMATORY

      (A)  adult : puerile                                     (B)  impartial

      (C)  flamboyant : colorful                            (D)  harmonious:  pleasant

      (E)  reciprocal  : mutual

5.   FRATERNITY : MEN

      (A) convent : nuns                                    (B) reformatory : convicts

      (C) cathedral : father                                 (D) sorority : women

      (E) auditorium : audience

6.   PRESCIENCE : PREDICTION

      (A) catcall : derision                                   (B) clairvoyant : séance

      (C) hospitality : friend                                 (D) telepathy : communication

      (E) wolf whistle : admiration 

7.    MISANTHROPE : HUMANITY

       (A) chauvinist : patriot                               (B) agnostic : god

       (C) misogynist : women                               (D) hydrophobia : water

       (E)  witch : magic  

8.   ANACHRONOUS: TIME

        (A) Incongruous : place                               (B) antiquated : old

        (C) synergy : energy                                   (D) ecosystem : environment

        (E) opposite : counter

9.   RAQUET : TENNIS

      (A) pawn: chess                                            (B) tee : ball

      (C) jockey : horse                                          (D) cork : badminton

      (E) wooden hammer : polo

10.  SAVAGE : BARBARIC

       (A) lucid : turbid                                            (B)  sallow  : yellowish

       (C) prismatic: colourful                                    (D)  puerile : senile

       (E) venomous : virulent

ANSWERS: -

1.(C)      2.(B)        3. (C)        4. (A)        5. (D)         6. (D)      7. (C)     8. (A)      9. (C)       10.(E)

9.4  ONE WORD SUBSTITUTION

There are many words in English which have a very comprehensive meaning. A single word can convey the sense of many words. The use of such words is considered to be good from the stylistic point of view. These words add to the depth, brevity, clarity, aptness and effectiveness of the language.

9.4.1 List of Popular Words

1. A person who believes in the total abolition of war. - Pacifist

2. A person who does not believe in the existence of God. - Atheist

3. A person with whom money or gain is the most important consideration. - Materialist

4. A person who is indifferent to pleasure and pain. - Stoic

5. One who is very simple and who easily believes whatever is told. - Credulous

6. One with long experience in any field. - Veteran

7. Consent of all - Unanimous

8. A book or a work of art whose author is not known. - Anonymous

9. One who takes up arms against the government. - Rebel

10. Murder or murderer of a king. - Regicide

11. Murder or murderer of one's own brother. – Fratricide

12. A disease which spreads by physical touch or contact. - Contagious

13. A person who is unable to pay his debts or honour his commitments - Insolvent

14. Persons living at the same time - Contemporaries

15. The period of gradual recovery of health after illness. - Convalescence

16. To turn out of society. - Ostracize

17. A remedy for all kinds of diseases or troubles. - Panacea

18. An elderly unmarried woman - Spinster

19. Undue favour shown to one's own relatives. - Nepotism

20. One who does a thing for pleasure and not as a profession. - Amateur

21. One who is very particular or over scrupulous about small details. - Meticulous

22. One who is a breaker of things of art and literature or, who opposes established  institutions. - Iconoclast

23. Speaking irreverently about God or sacred things. - Blaspheme

24. The act of violating the sanctity of the church or any religious institution. - Sacrilege

25. One who depends on and believes in fate. - Fatalist

26. One who is filled with excessive and mistaken enthusiasm in religious matters. - Fanatic or bigot

27. One who wishes to destroy all established governments, law and order. - Anarchist

28. Medical examination of the dead body. - Post mortem

29. A person who looks to the bright side of things. - Optimist

30. The study of coins. - Numismatics

31. One who eats too much. - Glutton

32. A speech delivered without any preparation. - Extempore

33. Something said or done at once without preparation. - Impromptu

34. A speech or a poem recited at the beginning of a play. - Prologue

35. A speech or a poem recited at the end of a play. - Epilogue

36. An office for which no salary is paid. - Honorary

37. A government by one person. - Autocracy

38. A government by small group of powerful persons. - Oligarchy

39. A government by the officials. - Bureaucracy

40. A government by the churchmen. - Theocracy

41. One who can use either hand with ease in writing or working. - Ambidextrous

42. One who is well-versed in any art, particularly fine arts. - Connoisseur

43. A style in which a writer makes a display of his knowledge and learning. - Pedantic

44. An imaginary name assumed by an author. - Pseudonym

45. Repetition of a writing, word for word. - Verbatim

46. That which can be interpreted. - Ambiguous

47. The practice of borrowing words and ideas from other authors and using them as one's own; literary theft. - Plagiarism

48. Dramatic performance with dumb show. - Pantomime

49. The state of being married. -Matrimony

50. The custom of having more than two husbands at the same time. - Polyandry

51. Present everywhere (God). - Omnipresent

52. All-powerful, without end or limit (God). - Omnipotent

53. A lover of mankind. - Philanthropist

54. A hater of woman kind. - Misogynist

55. A lower of one's own self. - Egoist              

56. A lower of others. - Altruist

57. A person who regards the whole world as his country. - Cosmopolitan

58. One who acts only for money. - Mercenary

59. Incapable of being corrected - Incorrigible

60. Incapable of being read - Illegible

61. Looking back into the past to bring it alive - Retrospective

62. One who leads others in any field - Pioneer

63. One who does not take any intoxicating drinks - Teetotaler

64. One who suffers from nervous disorder. - Neurotic

65. A trade or act prohibited by law - Illicit

66. One who walks in sleep - Somnambulist

67. One who talks in sleep - Somniloquist

68. That which cannot be defeated. - Invincible

Examples:

1. Animals living on land and in water       

(a) Amorphous         (b) Ambivalent         (c) Ambiguous          (d) Amphibian

Ans: (d)

2. A light sailing boat built especially for racing

(a) Yacht                  (b) Frigate                   (c) Dinghy               (d) Canoe

Ans: (a)

3. Be the embodiment or perfect example of

(a) Personify              (b) Masquerade            (c) Signify            (d) Characterise

Ans: (a)

4. A house for storing grains

(a) Godown                 (b) Granary                  (c) Cellar              (d) Store

Ans: (b)

5. A name adopted by an author in his writings

(a) Nickname            (b) Pseudonym                  (c) Title                 (d) Nomenclature

Ans: (b)

6. Of unknown and unadmitted authorship

(a) Unanimous          (b) Vexation                      (c) Gullible           (d) Anonymous

Ans: (d)

7. Member of a band of robbers

(a) Thief                    (b) Pirate                        (c) Dacoit              (d) Brigand

Ans: (d)

8. A person who is made to bear the blame due to others

(a) Ignoramus          (b) Nincompoop                   (c) Innocent          (d) Scapegoat

Ans: (d)

9. A person who brings goods illegally into the country

(a) Smuggler             (b) Imposter                      (c) Exporter          (d) Importer

Ans: (a)

10. Cutting for stone in the bladder

(a) Vasectomy         (b) Masquerade                 (c) Dichotomy         (d) Tubectomy

Ans: (b)

Exercise for practice

Choose the one word which can be substituted for given word or sentence

1.  A book containing in formation on all subjects.

      (a) Ledger                   (b) dictionary

      (c) biography               (d) encyclopedia.

2.  A note to help memory is.

      (a) biography               (b) memorandum

      (c) diary                     (d) autograph.

3.  The treat met of female diseases is.

     (a) oculist                   (b) orthopedist

     (c) gynecology             (d) dermatologist

4.  The science of the diseases of the human body is.

     (a) pathology               (b) oculist

     (c) intern                     (d) neurology.

5.  A government by the divine guidance is.

     (a) plutocracy              (b) monarchy

     (c) theocracy               (d) hierarchy.

6.  An excessive patriotism is.

     (a) autonomy               (b) diplomacy

     (c) revolt                     (d) chauvinism.

7.  Rising from the dead is.

     (a) idolatry                   (b) epitaph

     (c) hearse                    (d) resurrection

8.  The gown worn by a priest is.

     (a) pulpit                     (b) aisle

     (c) altar                      (d) cassock.

9.  A squirrel’s home is.

     (a) drey                       (b) resort

     (c) hutch                     (d) apiary.

10.  A place where dead bodies are kept temporarily is.

       (a) epitaph                 (b) hearse

       (c) exhume                (d) mortuary

ANSWERS :-

1.(d)                        2.(b)                     3.(c)                       4.(a)                        5.(c)    

 6.(a)                       7.(d)                     8.(d)                        9.(a)                       10(b). 

Commonly confused words

Here’s a quick-reference list of pairs of words that regularly cause confusion.

Word 1

Meaning

Word 2

Meaning

accept

to agree to receive or do

except

not including

adverse

Unfavorable , harmful

averse

strongly disliking; opposed

advice

recommendations about what to do

advise

to recommend something

affect

to change or make a difference to

effect

a result; to bring about a result

aisle

a passage between rows of seats

isle

an island

all together

all in one place, all at once

altogether

completely; on the whole

along

moving or extending horizontally on

a long

referring to something of great length

aloud

out loud

allowed

permitted

altar

a sacred table in a church

alter

to change

amoral

not concerned with right or wrong

immoral

not following accepted moral standards

appraise

to assess

apprise

to inform someone

assent

agreement, approval

ascent

the action of rising or climbing up

aural

relating to the ears or hearing

oral

relating to the mouth; spoken

balmy

pleasantly warm

barmy

foolish, crazy

bare

naked; to uncover

bear

to carry; to put up with

bated

with bated breath (in great suspense)

baited

with bait attached or inserted

bazaar

a Middle Eastern market

bizarre

strange

berth

a bunk in a ship, train, etc.

birth

the emergence of a baby from the womb

born

having started life

borne

carried

bough

a branch of a tree

bow

to bend the head; the front of a ship

brake

a device for stopping a vehicle; to stop a vehicle

break

to separate into pieces; a pause

breach

to break through or break a rule; a gap

breech

the back part of a gun barrel

broach

to raise a subject for discussion

brooch

a piece of jewelry

canvas

a type of strong cloth

canvass

to seek people’s votes

censure

to criticize strongly

censor

to ban parts of a book or film

cereal

a grass producing an edible grain

serial

happening in a series

chord

a group of musical notes

cord

a length of string; a cord-like body part

climactic

forming a climax

climatic

relating to climate

coarse

rough

course

a direction

complacent

smug and self-satisfied

complaisant

willing to please

complement

to add to so as to improve; an addition that improves something

compliment

to praise or express approval; an admiring remark

council

a group of people who manage or advise

counsel

advice; to advise

cue

a signal for action; a wooden rod

queue

a line of people or vehicles

curb

to keep something in check; a control or limit

kerb

(in British English) the stone edge of a pavement

currant

a dried grape

current

happening now; a flow of water, air, or electricity

defuse

to make a situation less tense

diffuse

to spread over a wide area

desert

a waterless, empty area

dessert

the sweet course of a meal

discreet

careful not to attract attention

discrete

separate and distinct

disinterested

impartial

uninterested

not interested

draught

a current of air

draft

a first version of a piece of writing

draw

an even score at the end of a game

drawer

a sliding storage compartment

dual

having two parts

duel

a fight or contest between two people

elicit

to draw out a reply or reaction

illicit

not allowed by law or rules

ensure

to make certain that something will happen

insure

to provide compensation if a person dies or property is damaged

envelop

to cover or surround

envelope

a paper container for a letter

exercise

physical activity; to do physical activity

exorcise

to drive out an evil spirit

fawn

a young deer; light brown

faun

a mythical being, part man, part goat

flaunt

to display ostentatiously

flout

to disregard a rule

flounder

to move clumsily; to have difficulty doing something

founder

to fail

forbear

to refrain

forebear

an ancestor

foreword

an introduction to a book

forward

onwards, ahead

freeze

to turn to ice

frieze

a decoration along a wall

grisly

gruesome, revolting

grizzly

a type of bear

hoard

a store

horde

a large crowd of people

imply

to suggest indirectly

infer

to draw a conclusion

loath

reluctant, unwilling

loathe

to hate

loose

to unfasten; to set free

lose

to be deprived of; to be unable to find

meter

a measuring device

metre

a metric unit; rhythm in verse

militate

to be a powerful factor against

mitigate

to make less severe

palate

the roof of the mouth

palette

a board for mixing colors

pedal

a foot-operated lever

peddle

to sell goods

pole

a long, slender piece of wood

poll

voting in an election

pour

to flow or cause to flow

pore

a tiny opening; to study something closely

practice

the use of an idea or method; the work or business of a doctor, dentist, etc.

practice

to do something repeatedly to gain skill; to do something regularly

prescribe

to authorize use of medicine; to order authoritatively

proscribe

to officially forbid something

principal

most important

principle

a fundamental rule or belief

sceptic

a person inclined to doubt

septic

infected with bacteria

sight

the ability to see

site

a location

stationary

not moving

stationery

writing materials

storey

a level of a building

story

a tale or account

titillate

to arouse interest

titivate

to make more attractive

tortuous

full of twists; complex

torturous

full of pain or suffering

wreath

an arrangement of flowers

wreathe

to surround or encircle