Analogies (English)

 ANALOGIES

Analogies, in a narrower sense, are a test of vocabulary. In a broader sense, however, they test the ability to see relationship between the meanings of words. First, a pair of words is given. These words are related to each other in a certain manner. You have to spot this relationship accurately and to identify, among the given words or word pairs, the ones that are similarly related.

Example:

       TRUTH: FALSEHOOD:: VIRTUE: ?

       1. Goodness                2. Vice            3. Altruism                 4. Veracity

Ans :( 2)

Explanation:

In this example you have to determine which of the given words has the same relationship to ‘virtue’, as ‘truth’ has to ‘falsehood’.

The surest way to do this is to first spot the relationship. Once you spot what the relationship is, (in this case, that of opposite) it becomes easy to note that the opposite of ‘virtue’ is [2] ‘vice’. Do not read the alternatives till you have first determined the relationship between the capitalized pair.

Some Common Relationships:

1. CAUSE: EFFECT

    LIQUOR: INTOXICATION

    Liquor causes intoxication

2. OBJECT: PURPOSE

    CORK: BOTTLE

    A cork is used to close a bottle.

3. PART: WHOLE

    BOOK: LITERATURE

    A book is part of literature.

4. PART: PART

    FINGER: HAND

    Finger is a part of a hand, which again is part of a larger body.

5. OBJECT TO ACTION

    GUN: FIRE

    You fire a gun.

6. ACTION TO OBJECT/ PHENOMENON

    EAT: FOOD

    You eat food.

7. SYNONYMS

    SLIM: THIN

    Thin is the synonym of slim.

8. ANTONYMS

    RELIGIOUS: ATHEIST

    A religious person believes in god, while an atheist is a non-believer. The pair is therefore   

    antonymous.

9. DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS

    JACKAL: SLY

    A jackal has the characteristic of being sly.   

10. CLASS: MEMBER

      MAMMAL: MAN

      Man falls under the class of Mammals.

11. MANNER: ACTIVTITY

      RAMBLE: SPEAK

      Rambling is speaking in an incoherent manner.

12. ACTION: ITS SIGNIFICANCE

      BLUSH: EMBARASSMENT

      A blush signifies embarrassment.

13. WORKER: WORKPLACE

      PRIEST: CHAPEL

      The main workplace of a priest is the chapel. 

14. SPATIAL: SEPARATION

      LADAKH: KANYAKUMARI

       They are spatially separated so that they are at the extreme North and extreme South of India.

15. SYMBOL: QUALITY

      WHITE: PEACE

      White symbolizes peace.

16. DEGREES

      COOL: COLD

      Cold is of a higher degree than cool.

Strategies for Analogies: 

1. Define the Relationship:

In the analogy questions, to avoid going wrong, the first step is to define the relationship between the two key words. The relationship should be defined either on paper or in your mind in the form of a sentence. Until then, don’t look at the answer options. Once the relationship is defined, then search for an option where a similar kind of sentence can be formed connecting the two words meaningfully.

Example:

  ANXIOUS         :   REASSURANCE

1. resentful        :   gratitude

2. perplexed       :   clarification

3. inured            :   imagination

4. vociferous       :   suppression

Explanation:

The relationship between the two capitalized words can be expressed as: “an anxious person requires reassurance”; similarly, “a perplexed person requires clarification”.

2. The “all that glitter is not gold” principle:

Often question setters give answer options which have apparent subject similarities. These answers will straightaway attract your attention. But going by similarity of subjects or issues, more often than not, these are just to deceive you.

Example:

   STUTTER         :      SPEECH

1. Blare              :      Hearing

2. Aroma            :      Smelling

3. Astigmatism    :      Sight

4. Novocain         :      Touch

Explanation:

A stutter is a defect of speech. Similarly, in [3], Astigmatism is a defect of the sight. So [3] is the answer. But choice [1] ‘Blare: Hearing” is an option which immediately attracts the attraction, as it is closely related to hearing. But then, blare is not a defect of hearing. Hence, [3].

3. Beyond the obvious meaning:

Sometimes one of the capitalized words in the Analogy will have a secondary meaning which is uncommon. Going by the common meaning of the word, you could get confused in defining the relationship.

Example:

   ANNEX          :          BUILDING

1. Postscript     :          Letter

2. Lyric            :          Song

3. Paragraph    :          Text

4. Hill              :          Mountain

Explanation:

The common meaning of annex is to add, append or take possession of. But here adding or taking possession of a building is not the relationship. Annex has another meaning of “supplementary building”. Similarly, a postscript is a supplementary part of the letter.

4. Thinner line of distinction:

Often in defining a relationship we come up with a very broad defining relationship and then subsequently get more than one option which suits the relationship. This is an indication of the fact that we have to narrow down our definition to more precise terms.

Example:

   DIAMETER     :          CIRCLE

1. Diagonal       :          Rectangle

2. Equator        :          Hemisphere

3. Altitude        :          Triangle

4. Noon            :          Day

Explanation:

In this question if the relation is that “the diameter divides the circle into two equal parts”, then options [1], [2] and [4] all look attractive enough to be the answer. Diagonal, Equator and noon divide rectangle, hemisphere and day into two equal parts respectively. So we have to look for a thinner line of distinction. Going back to the main relationship, one can define it as “a diameter is a line dividing the circle, which is a linear figure, into two equal parts”. This definition rules out the choices [2] and [4] because a Hemisphere is not a linear figure, and also because the Equator is not a line which passes through the Center of the Earth; rather, it is an imagery circular line which divides the Earth into two equal parts. In [4], noon is not a line dividing the day into two equal halves. Thus [1] is the answer. Here we have arrived at the answer through the process of elimination which is a very useful device in such cases. 

5. A grammatical relationship:

It is often important to see what parts of speech are the capitalized words. There are certain words which are different parts of speech depending on their usage

Example

   MAROON        :           SAILOR

1. Red               :           Ship

2. Crimson         :           Flower

3. Stranded        :           Tourist

4. Color              :           Dress

Explanation:

The word maroon has two meanings, one referring to the color maroon which is a noun. Another is the verb-the meaning being “to abandon” or “to strand”. Obviously, the relationship is not of a sailor to the maroon color. It is about a sailor who has been abandoned. Similarly “a tourist gets stranded”. The other options are only Eye-catchers trying to decoy you. Hence,[3]. 

Exercise for practice

1. VACCINATION: DISEASE

     (A) civil servant: furlough                            (B) furnace: heat

     (C)  fortification: enemy                              (D) vacation: tourist

     (E)  band: music

2.  DILATE : CONTRACT

     (A) hock : pawn                                         (B)  wax : wane

     (C) contaminate : spread                            (D)  intrude : disturb

     (E)  scribble : write

3.  TOM HAWK : RED INDIANS

      (A) wheel : Mayans                                   (B) chariot : Indus people

      (C)  boomerang: Australian aborigines        (D) rocket: Russians

      (E)  skirt : Scotland 

4.   LAUDATORY : DEFAMATORY

      (A)  adult : puerile                                     (B)  impartial

      (C)  flamboyant : colorful                           (D)  harmonious:  pleasant

      (E)  reciprocal  : mutual

5.   FRATERNITY : MEN

      (A) convent : nuns                                    (B) reformatory : convicts

      (C) cathedral : father                                 (D) sorority : women

      (E) auditorium : audience

6.   PRESCIENCE : PREDICTION

      (A) catcall : derision                                   (B) clairvoyant : séance

      (C) hospitality : friend                                (D) telepathy : communication

      (E) wolf whistle : admiration 

7.    MISANTHROPE : HUMANITY

       (A) chauvinist : patriot                               (B) agnostic : god

       (C) misogynist : women                             (D) hydrophobia : water

       (E)  witch : magic  

8.   ANACHRONOUS: TIME

        (A) Incongruous : place                               (B) antiquated : old

        (C) synergy : energy                                   (D) ecosystem : environment

        (E) opposite : counter

9.   RAQUET : TENNIS

      (A) pawn: chess                                            (B) tee : ball

      (C) jockey : horse                                          (D) cork : badminton

      (E) wooden hammer : polo

10.  SAVAGE : BARBARIC

       (A) lucid : turbid                                            (B)  sallow  : yellowish

       (C) prismatic: colourful                                   (D)  puerile : senile

       (E) venomous : virulent

ANSWERS: -

1.(C)    2.(B)     3. (C)    4. (A)     5. (D)     6. (D)    7. (C)    8. (A)     9. (C)    10.(E)