One Word Substitution

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9.4 ONE WORD SUBSTITUTION 

There are many words in English which have a very comprehensive meaning. A single word can convey the sense of many words. The use of such words is considered to be good from the stylistic point of view. These words add to the depth, brevity, clarity, aptness and effectiveness of the language.

9.4.1 List of Popular Words

1. A person who believes in the total abolition of war. - Pacifist

2. A person who does not believe in the existence of God. - Atheist

3. A person with whom money or gain is the most important consideration. - Materialist

4. A person who is indifferent to pleasure and pain. - Stoic

5. One who is very simple and who easily believes whatever is told. - Credulous

6. One with long experience in any field. - Veteran

7. Consent of all - Unanimous

8. A book or a work of art whose author is not known. - Anonymous

9. One who takes up arms against the government. - Rebel

10. Murder or murderer of a king. - Regicide

11. Murder or murderer of one's own brother. – Fratricide

12. A disease which spreads by physical touch or contact. - Contagious

13. A person who is unable to pay his debts or honour his commitments - Insolvent

14. Persons living at the same time - Contemporaries

15. The period of gradual recovery of health after illness. - Convalescence

16. To turn out of society. - Ostracize

17. A remedy for all kinds of diseases or troubles. - Panacea

18. An elderly unmarried woman - Spinster

19. Undue favour shown to one's own relatives. - Nepotism

20. One who does a thing for pleasure and not as a profession. - Amateur

21. One who is very particular or over scrupulous about small details. - Meticulous

22. One who is a breaker of things of art and literature or, who opposes established  institutions. - Iconoclast

23. Speaking irreverently about God or sacred things. - Blaspheme

24. The act of violating the sanctity of the church or any religious institution. - Sacrilege

25. One who depends on and believes in fate. - Fatalist

26. One who is filled with excessive and mistaken enthusiasm in religious matters. - Fanatic or bigot

27. One who wishes to destroy all established governments, law and order. - Anarchist

28. Medical examination of the dead body. - Post mortem

29. A person who looks to the bright side of things. - Optimist

30. The study of coins. - Numismatics

31. One who eats too much. - Glutton

32. A speech delivered without any preparation. - Extempore

33. Something said or done at once without preparation. - Impromptu

34. A speech or a poem recited at the beginning of a play. - Prologue

35. A speech or a poem recited at the end of a play. - Epilogue

36. An office for which no salary is paid. - Honorary

37. A government by one person. - Autocracy

38. A government by small group of powerful persons. - Oligarchy

39. A government by the officials. - Bureaucracy

40. A government by the churchmen. - Theocracy

41. One who can use either hand with ease in writing or working. - Ambidextrous

42. One who is well-versed in any art, particularly fine arts. - Connoisseur

43. A style in which a writer makes a display of his knowledge and learning. - Pedantic

44. An imaginary name assumed by an author. - Pseudonym

45. Repetition of a writing, word for word. - Verbatim

46. That which can be interpreted. - Ambiguous

47. The practice of borrowing words and ideas from other authors and using them as one's own; literary theft. - Plagiarism

48. Dramatic performance with dumb show. - Pantomime

49. The state of being married. -Matrimony

50. The custom of having more than two husbands at the same time. - Polyandry

51. Present everywhere (God). - Omnipresent

52. All-powerful, without end or limit (God). - Omnipotent

53. A lover of mankind. - Philanthropist

54. A hater of woman kind. - Misogynist

55. A lower of one's own self. - Egoist              

56. A lower of others. - Altruist

57. A person who regards the whole world as his country. - Cosmopolitan

58. One who acts only for money. - Mercenary

59. Incapable of being corrected - Incorrigible

60. Incapable of being read - Illegible

61. Looking back into the past to bring it alive - Retrospective

62. One who leads others in any field - Pioneer

63. One who does not take any intoxicating drinks - Teetotaler

64. One who suffers from nervous disorder. - Neurotic

65. A trade or act prohibited by law - Illicit

66. One who walks in sleep - Somnambulist

67. One who talks in sleep - Somniloquist

68. That which cannot be defeated. - Invincible

Examples:

1. Animals living on land and in water       

(a) Amorphous         (b) Ambivalent         (c) Ambiguous          (d) Amphibian

Ans: (d)

2. A light sailing boat built especially for racing

(a) Yacht                  (b) Frigate                   (c) Dinghy               (d) Canoe

Ans: (a)

3. Be the embodiment or perfect example of

(a) Personify              (b) Masquerade            (c) Signify            (d) Characterise

Ans: (a)

4. A house for storing grains

(a) Godown                 (b) Granary                  (c) Cellar              (d) Store

Ans: (b)

5. A name adopted by an author in his writings

(a) Nickname            (b) Pseudonym                  (c) Title                 (d) Nomenclature

Ans: (b)

6. Of unknown and unadmitted authorship

(a) Unanimous          (b) Vexation                      (c) Gullible           (d) Anonymous

Ans: (d)

7. Member of a band of robbers

(a) Thief                    (b) Pirate                        (c) Dacoit              (d) Brigand

Ans: (d)

8. A person who is made to bear the blame due to others

(a) Ignoramus          (b) Nincompoop                   (c) Innocent          (d) Scapegoat

Ans: (d)

9. A person who brings goods illegally into the country

(a) Smuggler             (b) Imposter                      (c) Exporter          (d) Importer

Ans: (a)

10. Cutting for stone in the bladder

(a) Vasectomy         (b) Masquerade                 (c) Dichotomy         (d) Tubectomy

Ans: (b)

Exercise for practice

Choose the one word which can be substituted for given word or sentence

1.  A book containing in formation on all subjects.

      (a) Ledger                   (b) dictionary

      (c) biography               (d) encyclopedia.

2.  A note to help memory is.

      (a) biography               (b) memorandum

      (c) diary                     (d) autograph.

3.  The treat met of female diseases is.

     (a) oculist                   (b) orthopedist

     (c) gynecology             (d) dermatologist

4.  The science of the diseases of the human body is.

     (a) pathology               (b) oculist

     (c) intern                    (d) neurology.

5.  A government by the divine guidance is.

     (a) plutocracy              (b) monarchy

     (c) theocracy               (d) hierarchy.

6.  An excessive patriotism is.

     (a) autonomy               (b) diplomacy

     (c) revolt                     (d) chauvinism.

7.  Rising from the dead is.

     (a) idolatry                   (b) epitaph

     (c) hearse                    (d) resurrection

8.  The gown worn by a priest is.

     (a) pulpit                     (b) aisle

     (c) altar                      (d) cassock.

9.  A squirrel’s home is.

     (a) drey                       (b) resort

     (c) hutch                     (d) apiary. 

10.  A place where dead bodies are kept temporarily is.

       (a) epitaph                 (b) hearse

       (c) exhume                (d) mortuary

ANSWERS :-

1.(d)                        2.(b)                     3.(c)                       4.(a)                        5.(c)    

6.(a)                       7.(d)                     8.(d)                        9.(a)                       10(b).