Preposition

Contents

      1.        Parts of Speech                                                                                                                  

1.6      Preposition

1.6.1       Rules

1.6.2       Short List of One-Word Prepositions

1.6.3       General Rules Regarding Certain Prepositions

 1.6 PREPOSITION (pre-position – placed before)

A Preposition is a word which shows relationships among other words in the sentence. The relationships include direction, place, time, cause, manner and amount.

Examples: The girl sitting on the last bench is very talkative.

                The cat is sleeping beneath the chair

1.6.1 Rules:

Rule 1: The Prepositions usually come before the noun.

Rule 2: Prepositions can be used with all forms of nouns (e.g. collective nouns, pronouns etc.).

Rule 3: Prepositions can't come after a verb, but can be used before a gerund or verb in noun form.

A preposition always goes with a noun or pronoun which is called the object of the preposition. The preposition and the object of the preposition together are called a prepositional phrase.

1.6.2 Short list of one-word prepositions

aboard

about

above

across

after

against

along

amid

among

anti

around

at

before

behind

below

beneath

beside

besides

between

beyond

but

by

concerning

 

Considering

despite

down

during

except

excepting

excluding

following

for

from

in

inside

into

like

minus

near

of

off

on

onto

opposite

outside

over

 

past

per

plus

regarding

round

save

since

than

through

to

toward

towards

under

underneath

unlike

up

upon

versus

via

with

within

without

 

 

 

1.6.3 General Rules Regarding Certain Prepositions

  • Prepositions Of Time

Rules:

Rule 1:At’ is used with a definite point of time and with festivals.

Examples: I usually get up at 5 o’clock.

                He will come at holi.

Rule 2:In’ is used with the parts of the day, month, seasons and years

Example: He takes a walk in the afternoon.

Rule 3:On’ is used with days and dates

Example: My brother will arrive on Monday

Rule 4:By’ refers to the latest time at which an action will be over

Example: The examination will be over by 5 pm.

Rule 5:For’ is used with perfect continuous tense showing the duration of action.

Example: I have been here for three years.

Rule 6:‘Since’ is used with the point of time when action begins and continues.

Example: He has been ill since last Tuesday.

Rule 7:From’ refers to the starting point of an action

Example: This water came from a spring.

  • Prepositions Of Position

Rules:

Rule 1:At’ refers to an exact point

Example: The tourist stayed at the Tourist Hotel.

Rule 2:In’ refers to larger areas

Example: He lives in Bombay.

Rule 3:Between’ is used for two persons or two things.

Example: Share these sweets between him and me.

Rule 4:Among’ is used with more than two persons or things but before the word which starts with a consonant letter.

Example: Divide the sweets among the three boys.

Rule 5:Amongst’ is also used with more than two persons or things but before the word which starts with a vowel letter.

Example: Divide the sweets amongst us.

Rule 6:Above’ is used for higher than

Example: The sun rose above the horizon.

Rule 7:Under’ is used for lower than

Example: It is shady under the trees.

Rule 8:Below’ is used for lower than

Example: When the sun sets it goes below the horizon.

Rule 9:Over’ is used for vertically above

Example: There is an aircraft coming over.

Rule 10:Beneath’ means a lower position

Example: The ground was slippery beneath her.

  • Prepositions Of Direction

Rules:

Rule 1:To’ is used to express motion from one place to another

Example: We walked to the river and back.

Rule 2:Towards’ refers to a particular direction

Example: He saw me running towards him.

Rule 3:Into’ denotes motion towards the inside of something

Example: She fell into a ditch.

Rule 4:  ‘At’ refers to aim

Example: He aimed at the bird.

Rule 5:  ‘For’ denotes place/direction

Example: I will leave for Pune today.

Rule 6: Against’ shows pressure

Example: She cleaned the edge of her knife against the plate.

Rule 7:Off’ refers to separation

Example: He was wiping sweat off his face.

Rule 8:  ‘From’ refers to the point of departure

Example: The man parted from his friends.

Some more important rules:

Rule 1:About’ shows nearness to an action

Example: I was about to go to bed when there was a knock at the door.

Rule 2:Along’ stands for ‘in the same line’

Example: She led them along the corridor.

Rule 3:After’ refers to sequence

Example: She came after me.

Rule 4: Before’ means in front of, sequence

Example: A thief was brought before the judge.

Rule 5:Behind’ means at the back of

Example: She sat down behind the hedge.

Rule 6:Beyond’ means on the farther side of

Example: This is beyond his power.

Rule 7:Beside’ means by the side of

Example: I sat down beside my wife

Rule 8:Besides’ means in addition to

Example: Besides being a teacher, she is a skilled craftsman.

EXERCISE FOR PRACTICE

PREPOSITION

From the given options choose the most appropriate preposition and fill in the blanks given below

1.      I’ll reach there ___________5 O’ clock.

(a)     at                                    (b)    on

(c)      by                                   (d)     till

(e)     until

2.      She was charged ______ murder.

(a)    from                         (b)    for

(c)     of                           (d)     with

(e)     in

3.       I   rested ________ the shadow of mongo tree.

(a)      in                          (b)    beneath

(c)      under                     (d)     below

(e)     at

4.       She congratulated me ___________ my success.

(a)      on                         (b)    for

(c)      over                       (d)     to

(e)      at 

5.       Cigarette smoking is injurious ___________health.

(a)      about                     (b)     on

(c)       for                        (d)     to

(e)       with

ANSWERS:

1. (a),         2. (c),           3. (c),           4. (d),           5. (d),