Parts of Speech


      1.        Parts of Speech                                                                                                                  

1.1      Noun

1.1.1       Kinds of Noun

1.1.2       Gender

1.1.3       Number

1.1.4       Case

1.2      Adjective

1.2.1       Kinds of Adjectives

1.2.2       Degrees of Adjectives

1.2.3       Rules

1.3      Pronoun

1.3.1       Kinds of Pronoun

1.3.2       Rules

1.4      Verb

1.4.1       Different Kinds of Verbs

1.4.2       Subject Verb Agreement

1.5      Adverb

1.5.1       The Kinds of Adverbs

1.5.2       Comparison of Adverbs

1.5.3       Some Rules Related to the Use of Adverbs

1.6      Preposition

1.6.1       Rules

1.6.2       Short List of One-Word Prepositions

1.6.3       General Rules Regarding Certain Prepositions

1.7      Conjunction

1.7.1       Classification of Conjunctions

1.7.2       Some Important Rules

1.8      Interjection


1.1 Noun

A noun is a word used to refer to people, animals, objects, substances, states, events and feelings. Nouns can be a subject or an object of a verb, can be modified by an adjective and can take an article or determiner.

Examples: woman, cheetah, Australia, cake, heat etc.

1.1.1 Kinds of Noun

  • Common Noun

A common noun is the word used for representing a class/group of person, place or thing. These words are not capitalized.

Examples: These players were the best in the country.

                  The girls played much better than the boys did.     

  • Proper Noun

A proper noun is the name of a distinct person, place or thing (i.e., its own name). A proper noun always starts with a capital letter.

Examples: Mohan, Africa, United Nations, the Tower of London, Uncle George etc.

Example sentence for both common noun and proper noun:

My favorite auntie is Auntie Maria.

(In this example, the first "auntie" is a common noun; whereas, the second "Auntie" is part of a proper noun.)

  • Material Noun

Material noun refers to the name of materials (such as metals or minerals)

Examples: Gold, silver, steel, iron, brass, copper etc.

Example sentence: These silver coins were gifted to me by my grandmother.

  • Abstract Noun

A noun that denotes an idea, emotion, feeling, quality or other abstract or intangible concept

Examples: Goodness, Kindness, Laughter, Childhood etc.

Example sentence: Love is an irresistible desire.

                            Honesty is the best policy.

  • Collective Noun

A collective noun is the word used for a group of people or things.

Examples: Chair, team, jury, school, cabinet, regiment etc.

Example sentence: The mob was responsible for the riots in the city. 

                             The Indian Cricket team has won the match against Australia.

1.1.2 Gender

Gender: The gender of a noun indicates the sex or the absence of sex.

1. Masculine Gender: A noun that denotes male sex is called Masculine Gender.

Examples: boy, lion, dog etc.

2. Feminine Gender: A noun that denotes female sex is called feminine Gender. 

Examples: girl, lioness, cow etc.

3. Common Gender: A noun that denotes either male or female sex or can be used to denote both male and female is called Common Gender.

Examples: child, servant, cousin etc.

4. Neuter Gender: A noun that denotes a lifeless thing is called Neuter Gender (Neither Male/Female)

Examples: pen, pencil, box etc.

1.1.3 Number

1. Singular Number: A noun that denotes only one person or thing is said to be in the Singular Number.

 Examples: boy, girl, pen etc.

2. Plural Number: A noun that denotes more than one is said to be in Plural Number.

(These end with s/es).

Examples: boys, girls, tables etc.

1.1.4 Case

1. Nominative Case: A noun when it is used as the subject of a verb, it is said to be in the Nominative Case.

Example: Jane broke an expensive vase.

Here, Jane is noun and is said to be in the nominative case.

2. Objective Case: A noun, when it is used as the object of a verb, it is said to be in the objective case.

Example: Jane broke an expensive vase.

Here, the noun vase is object in the above sentence and is said to be in the objective case.

3. Possessive Case: A noun, when it is used to show ownership or possession, authority, origin kind etc. it is said to be in the Possessive Case.

Example: This is Robin’s way of doing things.

4. Vocative Case: When the noun is the name of the person spoken to or addressed, it is said to be in the vocative case.

Example: ‘Stand up, Sam’.

In this example, ‘Sam’ is addressed. So Sam is in vocative case.

5. Dative Case: When a noun indicates the indirect object of the verb-generally ‘Give’, it is said to be in the Dative case.

Example: Mr.Rohit gave Sim a file containing some confidential papers.

In the above sentence Sim was the person to whom Mr.Rohit gave a file containing some confidential papers.

1.1.5 Rules:

Rule 1: Proper Nouns are always written with a capital letter at the beginning.

Rule 2: A collective noun usually takes a singular verb and is substituted by a singular pronoun.

Rule 3: A material noun does not take an article (a, an, the) before it. 

Rule 4: Two plurals can be used together only when separated by comma (,) or semi colon (;).


Adjectives are the words used to describe and point out the characteristic of the noun they go with. This could be about its shape, colors, size, number, etc.

Examples: This is an interesting way of telling a story.

                Don’t ruin your precious time.

1.2.1 Kinds of Adjectives

  • Adjective of Numbers

Numbers are usually adjectives, because the information they give is how many of the noun. They can be cardinal (like one, two, three), or ordinal (like first, second, third).Few, many, most, all, several, either, etc.

Examples: He worked hard and secured first position in the university.

                 These three books were in the store room from many years.

  • Adjective of Quality

These adjectives show the quality or kind of a person or thing.

Honest, fat, long, blue, clever comes under these types of adjectives.

Examples: The crops and plants have gone dry due to lack of rains.

                  Colorful flowers are blooming in the garden.

  • Adjective of Quantity

They show the quantity of an uncountable thing. Whole, any, enough, little comes under these kinds of adjectives.

Examples: Some of the mangoes in the box were rotten.

                 All that a country needs is peace. 

  • Demonstrative Adjectives

The demonstrative adjectives "this", "these", "that", "those", and "what" point out a noun or noun phrases.

Examples: That building was destroyed during the attack.

                These children were orphaned during the war.

  • Interrogative Adjectives

An interrogative adjective ("which" or "what" or “whose”) asks question along with noun.

Examples: Which way shall I go?

                What book are you reading?

  • Emphasizing Adjectives

These adjectives are used with a noun to make the expression emphatic. Own, Very are used as emphasizing adjective.

Examples: I saw him beating with my own eyes.           

                 This is the very thing I want.

  • Exclamatory Adjective  

These adjectives are used to express the feeling. The word “What” is used as exclamatory adjective.

Examples: What a beautiful place it is!

                    What an idea!

1.2.2 Degrees of Adjectives

  1. The Positive Degree: The positive degree is the standard form of adjective.
  2. The Comparative Degree: The comparative compares two nouns and is formed by adding –er to the adjective.
  3. The Superlative Degree: The superlative compares one noun to any number of others and is formed by adding –est.

Example: Rajiv is a rich man, but Jai is richer than Gladys, and Sourav is the richest man in town.

1.2.3 Rules:

Rule 1: The comparative in ‘er’ is not used when we compare two qualities in the same person or thing.

Example: Mohan is more wise than strong.

Rule 2: When two objects are compared with each other, the latter term of comparison must exclude the former.

Example: Satish is cleverer than any other student in his class.

Rule 3: Double comparatives and superlatives are to be avoided.

Incorrect: Zarda mangoes are more sweeter than Maldah ones.

Correct: Zarda Mangoes are sweeter than Maldah ones.


A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun.

Example: He is going to buy a new property.

                We are enjoying our holidays.

                Gardening is my new hobby.

1.3.1 Kinds of Pronoun

  • Personal Pronouns: Personal pronoun stands for ‘THREE’ persons -First person, Second person and Third person. A Personal pronoun has the same number, Gender and Case as its own.















First Person
















Second Person
















Third Person








































  • Relative Pronouns: A relative pronoun refers or relates to noun.

Which, that, who, whom, whose and where are all relative pronouns.

Example: This is the girl who was awarded with the best writer award this year.

  • Indefinite Pronouns: Indefinite pronouns refer to a thing in general but not a specific something which is not conformed.

All, some, any, several, anyone, nobody, each, both, few, either, none, one and no one

Example: Somebody must have seen the driver leave.

  • Demonstrative Pronouns: These pronouns are used to demonstrate (or indicate).

This, that, these and those are all demonstrative pronouns.

Example: This palace is decorated with precious gemstones.

Interrogative Pronouns: It is a pronoun used in order to ask a question.

What, which, who, whom, and whose are Interrogative Pronouns.

Example: Who asked you to interfere in my matters?  

Note: All these five pronouns are in relative pronoun. A relative pronoun may be found in a question; an interrogative pronoun is found only in a question.

  • Reflexive Pronouns: The reflexive pronoun adds information by pointing back to a noun or another pronoun or in other words the action of a verb turns back upon it.

The reflexive pronouns are: Myself, yourself, herself, ourselves, yourselves and themselves.

Example: He saw it all by himself and then reported the mater to the police.

  • Distributive Pronouns: They refer to persons or things one at a time. These are always singular. Each, Either and Neither are Distributive Pronoun.

Example: Either of you can complete this task.

  • Possessive Pronouns: Possessive pronouns are used to show possession.

Mine, yours, his, her, its, ours and there are possessive pronouns.

Example: Those clothes are mine.

1.3.2 Rules:

Rule 1: A personal pronoun must be the same number, gender and person as the noun for which it stands.

Rule 2: A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in person, number and gender.

Rule 3: A reflexive pronoun cannot be used as a substitute for the subject.

Incorrect: Mohan and myself decided to join politics.

Correct: Mohan and I decided to join politics.

Rule 4: A distributive pronoun is used as a singular.

Rule 5: As relative pronoun refers to a noun or pronoun, it must be of the same number and person as its antecedent.

Rule 6: The case of a relative pronoun is used in both subjective and objective cases.

Rule 7: No conjunction should be placed before the relative pronoun except to join together two relative classes referring to the same antecedent.  



Choose the correct pronoun and fill in the blank.

1.     I saw the snake _________frightened you.

(a)     which                      (b)    who

(c)      that                       (d)     whom

(e)      was 

2.       ___________am going to Delhi.

(a)    I                             (b)      me

(c)     we                          (d)      us

(e)     are

3.     He was ___________Mr. Sharma.

(a)      a                           (b)    the

(c)      one                        (d)     that

(e)     he

4.      Ram __________been living in Delhi since 1967.

(a)     had                         (b)     has

(c)     since                       (d)     until

(e)     till

5.       I   am not so wise as____________

(a)      them                      (b)    they

(c)       you                       (d)    those

(e)      their


1. (d),        2. (d),            3. (a),           4. (b),           5. (b), 

1.4 VERB

A verb is a word that describes an action or a state of being.

Example: Hari is crying for his lost property.

Crying describes the action or state of Hari. So crying is a verb.

1.4.1 Different Kinds of Verbs

Transitive verb: A verb that is used with a direct object or a verb that needs a direct object to express a complete thought is called transitive verb.

Example: The batsman hits the ball.

Here the action denoted by verb hits passes to some object ball.

  • Intransitive verb: It is a verb that doesn’t take direct object with it. It expresses the action, state or being without passing to the object.

Example: The baby cries loudly.

Here the action denoted by verb cries stops with the subject baby and does not pass over to an object. Hence, it is an Intransitive verb.

  • Action Verbs: Action verbs express action by describing the behavior of a person, place or thing. They may describe physical or mental actions

Example: John thinks about writing poetry everyday.

Here the word thinks describes the mental action of John. So it is Action verb.         

  • Linking Verbs: Linking verbs link the subject (noun phrase) of the sentence with the rest of the sentence. Many linking verbs are forms of “to be.”

Example: The new dog could be a Pekingese.

  • Auxiliary Verbs: Auxiliary verbs, which are sometimes called helping verbs, act as helpers to other verbs. They appear before action verbs and linking verbs.

Be, have, do, can, must are some examples of auxiliaries

Example: I could swim across the river when I was young.

1.4.2 Subject Verb Agreement

The subject and the verb are the essential parts of a sentence. It is imperative that the verb agree with the subject in number and person.

1.4.3 Rules: 

Rule 1: If two singular nouns refer to the same person or thing, the verb must be singular.

Example: The poet and critic have been honored.

Rule 2: If two subjects together express one idea, the verb is in the singular.

Example: Bread And Butter is essential for one’s life.

Rule 3: If the singular subjects are preceded by each or every, the verb is usually singular.

Example: Every man and woman in a family is responsible for the upbringing of a child.

Rule 4: Two or more singular subjects connected by or, nor, either….or, neither….nor takes a verb in the singular.

Example: Either Manoj or Nadhukar has the key to this problem.

Rule 5: When a plural noun denotes some specific quantity or amount considered as a whole, the verb is generally singular. 

Example: Five hour is too short a time to judge one’s character.


From the given options choose the most appropriate verb and fill-in the blanks given below

1.       He is ___________of all.

(a)      taller                      (b)    tallest

(c)       big                        (d)     biggest

(e)      either ‘a’  or  ‘b’

2.      He is the __________candidate for this job.

(a)     perfect                    (b)     best

(c)      better                    (d)      good

(e)     either ‘a’ or ‘b’

3.      sameer is the __________runner .

(a)      fast                       (b)     fastest

(c)      longest                  (d)     either ‘b’ or ‘d’

(e)     none

4.       Sonali is the ___________of all.

(a)     most beautifully        (b)      most beautiful

(c)      beautifullest            (d)       beauty

(e)     either ‘a’  or  ‘c’ 

5.        Today is the __________day of my life.

(a)       bad                       (b)     dull

(c)       worst                    (d)     sad

(e)      either ‘a’  or  ‘b’ 


1. (b),         2. (c),          3. (b),          4. (b),          5. (c),


An Adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, another adverb, a phrase, or a clause. An adverb indicates manner, time, place, cause, or degree and answers questions such as "how," "when," "where," "how much”.

Example: He ran fast and caught the first bus to Pune.  

1.5.1 The Kinds of Adverbs

  • Adverbs of Manner: They provide information on how or in what manner.

Example: After reading carefully I came to know the real meaning of that article.

Adverbs of Time: They provide information on when it happens.

Example: I have never seen this type of destruction before.

  • Adverbs of Frequency: They provide information on how often something happens.

Example: They usually get to work at eight o'clock.

  • Adverbs of Degree or Quantity: They provide information concerning how much in what degree or to what extent something is done.

Example: There is hardly any scope for growth in the market now.

  • Adverbs of Place: They provide information concerning on where it happens.

Example: She will go there to attend a meeting.

1.5.2 Comparison of Adverbs

Adverbs, like adjective can be used in three degrees of comparison i.e., positive, comparative and superlative degree.


        Positive      Comparative         Superlative

        Fast             Faster                   Fastest

        Early            earlier                  Earliest

1.5.3 Some Rules Related to the Use of Adverbs:

Rule 1: Adjective should not be used for adverb.

Incorrect: The moon shone bright in the sky.

Correct: The moon shone brightly in the sky.

Rule 2: If the adverb is of one syllable, the comparative is formed by adding –er and the superlative by adding -est to the positive. 

Rule 3:  Adverbs of manner, place and time are generally placed after the verb or after the object if there is one. 

Example: The sun is shining brightly.

Rule 4: Adverbs of frequency and most of the adverbs of quantity are normally put between the subject and the verb if the verb consists of any one word.

Rule 5: An adverb usually comes after the Verb.       

Example: Ram runs quickly.

In this sentence, the word quickly modifies the verb runs.

Rule6: Adverbs which modify adjectives or other adverbs usually immediately precede the words they modify.

Example: The package is extremely large. 

In this sentence extremely modifies the adjective large       

1.6 PREPOSITION (pre-position – placed before)

A Preposition is a word which shows relationships among other words in the sentence. The relationships include direction, place, time, cause, manner and amount.

Examples: The girl sitting on the last bench is very talkative.

                The cat is sleeping beneath the chair

1.6.1 Rules:

Rule 1: The Prepositions usually come before the noun.

Rule 2: Prepositions can be used with all forms of nouns (e.g. collective nouns, pronouns etc.).

Rule 3: Prepositions can't come after a verb, but can be used before a gerund or verb in noun form.

A preposition always goes with a noun or pronoun which is called the object of the preposition. The preposition and the object of the preposition together are called a prepositional phrase.

1.6.2 Short list of one-word prepositions










































































1.6.3 General Rules Regarding Certain Prepositions

  • Prepositions Of Time


Rule 1:At’ is used with a definite point of time and with festivals.

Examples: I usually get up at 5 o’clock.

                He will come at holi.

Rule 2:In’ is used with the parts of the day, month, seasons and years

Example: He takes a walk in the afternoon.

Rule 3:On’ is used with days and dates

Example: My brother will arrive on Monday

Rule 4:By’ refers to the latest time at which an action will be over

Example: The examination will be over by 5 pm.

Rule 5:For’ is used with perfect continuous tense showing the duration of action.

Example: I have been here for three years.

Rule 6:‘Since’ is used with the point of time when action begins and continues.

Example: He has been ill since last Tuesday.

Rule 7:From’ refers to the starting point of an action

Example: This water came from a spring.

  • Prepositions Of Position


Rule 1:At’ refers to an exact point

Example: The tourist stayed at the Tourist Hotel.

Rule 2:In’ refers to larger areas

Example: He lives in Bombay.

Rule 3:Between’ is used for two persons or two things.

Example: Share these sweets between him and me.

Rule 4:Among’ is used with more than two persons or things but before the word which starts with a consonant letter.

Example: Divide the sweets among the three boys.

Rule 5:Amongst’ is also used with more than two persons or things but before the word which starts with a vowel letter.

Example: Divide the sweets amongst us.

Rule 6:Above’ is used for higher than

Example: The sun rose above the horizon.

Rule 7:Under’ is used for lower than

Example: It is shady under the trees.

Rule 8:Below’ is used for lower than

Example: When the sun sets it goes below the horizon.

Rule 9:Over’ is used for vertically above

Example: There is an aircraft coming over.

Rule 10:Beneath’ means a lower position

Example: The ground was slippery beneath her.

  • Prepositions Of Direction


Rule 1:To’ is used to express motion from one place to another

Example: We walked to the river and back.

Rule 2:Towards’ refers to a particular direction

Example: He saw me running towards him.

Rule 3:Into’ denotes motion towards the inside of something

Example: She fell into a ditch.

Rule 4:  ‘At’ refers to aim

Example: He aimed at the bird.

Rule 5:  ‘For’ denotes place/direction

Example: I will leave for Pune today.

Rule 6: Against’ shows pressure

Example: She cleaned the edge of her knife against the plate.

Rule 7:Off’ refers to separation

Example: He was wiping sweat off his face.

Rule 8:  ‘From’ refers to the point of departure

Example: The man parted from his friends.

Some more important rules:

Rule 1:About’ shows nearness to an action

Example: I was about to go to bed when there was a knock at the door.

Rule 2:Along’ stands for ‘in the same line’

Example: She led them along the corridor.

Rule 3:After’ refers to sequence

Example: She came after me.

Rule 4: Before’ means in front of, sequence

Example: A thief was brought before the judge.

Rule 5:Behind’ means at the back of

Example: She sat down behind the hedge.

Rule 6:Beyond’ means on the farther side of

Example: This is beyond his power.

Rule 7:Beside’ means by the side of

Example: I sat down beside my wife

Rule 8:Besides’ means in addition to

Example: Besides being a teacher, she is a skilled craftsman.



From the given options choose the most appropriate preposition and fill in the blanks given below

1.      I’ll reach there ___________5 O’ clock.

(a)     at                                    (b)    on

(c)      by                                   (d)     till

(e)     until

2.      She was charged ______ murder.

(a)    from                         (b)    for

(c)     of                           (d)     with

(e)     in

3.       I   rested ________ the shadow of mongo tree.

(a)      in                          (b)    beneath

(c)      under                     (d)     below

(e)     at

4.       She congratulated me ___________ my success.

(a)      on                         (b)    for

(c)      over                       (d)     to

(e)      at 

5.       Cigarette smoking is injurious ___________health.

(a)      about                     (b)     on

(c)       for                        (d)     to

(e)       with



1. (a),         2. (c),           3. (c),           4. (d),           5. (d),


 Conjunction is a word which merely joins words, phrases, and clauses.

Examples: Rashmi is slow but studious.

                 Walk slowly, lest you should fall.

1.7.1 Classification of Conjunctions:

1. Co-Coordinating Conjunctions: The conjunctions which join clauses of equal rank are called Co-Coordinating conjunctions. (and, but, for, or, nor, also, either-or, neither-nor)

2. Sub-Coordinating Conjunctions: It joins together clauses in which one is dependent on the other.

Examples: Since, you wish to excel in life, you must learn English.

                 He is slow, but he is sure.

1.7.2 Some Important Rules:

Rule 1: Some conjunctions are used in pairs only, they are called correlative conjunctions.

List of correlative conjunctions:

Either                     or

Neither                    Nor

Both                       and

Though                    yet

Whether                   or

Not only                   but also

Lest                       should

No sooner                than

As much                  as

Rule 2:  After not either we should use or (not nor).

Rule 3: Both until and unless are negative clauses, therefore no negative expression should be used with them.

Rule 4: After other/rather and with most comparative degrees adjectives the conjunction than is used.

Rule 5: Conjunction that is used in the following forms:

(a)  In indirect narration e.g., He said that he was ill.

(b) ‘That’ as conjunction is not used in interrogative, imperative or exclamatory clauses.

(c) Conjunction ‘that’ is not used in an interrogative adverb or interrogative pronoun in the indirect narration.

Rule 6: After whether/ if we use conjunction ‘or not’ or ‘or no’.

Example: I do not know whether (or if) he has gone or not.

Rule 7: We use ‘because’ to show reason and ‘in order that’ to show purpose.

Examples: He was punished because he was dishonest.

                  I came so early in order that I may meet you.

Rule 8: Conjunction ‘or’ is used to choose one, two or more than two things.

Example: You can go to Kanpur or Lucknow.

Rule 9: While is used in two senses.

(i) To show time or period of time

(ii) To suggest at the same time or along with

Example: While the boys sang, the girls dance.

Rule 10:  As if/As though, both these are imaginary or conditional expressions. We should, therefore, use past conditional tense after them.

Example: He behaved with me as if he were my boss.

Rule 11: Such is used to denote as category whereas ‘such that’ emphasis the degree of something by mentioning its consequences.

Example: Each member of the alliance agrees to take such action as it deems necessary. 



From the given option choose the most appropriate conjunction end fill in the blanks given below

1.     I am sure ________she did so.

(a)   but                           (b)    though

(c)   as                              (d)    that

(e)   of

2.    That man must be either mad________drunk.

(a)   and                           (b)    or

(c)   that                          (d)     for

(e)   with

3.     Neither Ravi_________Rahul were present here

(a)     or                           (b)   nor

(c)     either                      (d)   and

(e)     either ‘a’  or ‘d’

4.      Rakesh is both lame________deaf.

(a)    with                         (b)    and

(c)    that                         (d)    or

(e)    either ‘b’ or ‘d’

5.      She is ____________weak that she cannot walk.

(a)    and                          (b)    that

(c)    so                            (d)    too

(e)    to


1. (d),         2. (b),         3. (b),           4. (b),          5. (c)


An interjection is a word or phrase that expresses some emotions like happiness, grief, desperation, etc. Usually an interjection is followed by an exclamation mark and is not grammatically related to any other part of sentence.

Examples: Oh no! In forgot to bring my book.

                 Hey! Why don’t you come and meet me today?

                 Hurrah! I won the match. 

  • List of Commonly Used Interjections

A: aha, ahem, ahh, ahoy, alas, aw

B: bam, bingo, blah, boo, bravo, brrr

C: cheers, congratulations

D: dang, drat, darn, duh

E: eeek, eh, encore, eureka,

F: fiddlesticks

G: gadzooks, gee, gee whiz, golly, goodbye, goodness, good grief, great, gosh

H: ha-ha, hallelujah, hello, hey, hmm, holy buckets, holy cow,
    holy smokes, hot dog, huh? Humph, hurray, hush

O: oh, oh dear, oh my, oh well, oops, ouch

P: phew, phooey, pooh, pow

R: rats

S: shh.., shoo

T: thanks, there, tut-tut, tsk tsk

U: uh-huh, uh-oh, ugh

W: what, whoopee, whoops, wow

 Y: yes, yikes, yippee, yummy