Noun

Contents

      1.    Parts of Speech                                                                                                                  

1.1      Noun

1.1.1       Kinds of Noun

1.1.2       Gender

1.1.3       Number

1.1.4       Case

 

1. PARTS OF SPEECH

1.1 Noun

A noun is a word used to refer to people, animals, objects, substances, states, events and feelings. Nouns can be a subject or an object of a verb, can be modified by an adjective and can take an article or determiner.

Examples: woman, cheetah, Australia, cake, heat etc.

1.1.1 Kinds of Noun

  • Common Noun

A common noun is the word used for representing a class/group of person, place or thing. These words are not capitalized.

Examples: These players were the best in the country.

                  The girls played much better than the boys did.     

  • Proper Noun

A proper noun is the name of a distinct person, place or thing (i.e., its own name). A proper noun always starts with a capital letter.

Examples: Mohan, Africa, United Nations, the Tower of London, Uncle George etc.

Example sentence for both common noun and proper noun:

My favorite auntie is Auntie Maria.

(In this example, the first "auntie" is a common noun; whereas, the second "Auntie" is part of a proper noun.)

  • Material Noun

Material noun refers to the name of materials (such as metals or minerals)

Examples: Gold, silver, steel, iron, brass, copper etc.

Example sentence: These silver coins were gifted to me by my grandmother.

  • Abstract Noun

A noun that denotes an idea, emotion, feeling, quality or other abstract or intangible concept

 

Examples: Goodness, Kindness, Laughter, Childhood etc.

Example sentence: Love is an irresistible desire.

                             Honesty is the best policy.

  • Collective Noun

A collective noun is the word used for a group of people or things.

Examples: Chair, team, jury, school, cabinet, regiment etc.

Example sentence: The mob was responsible for the riots in the city. 

                             The Indian Cricket team has won the match against Australia.

1.1.2 Gender

Gender: The gender of a noun indicates the sex or the absence of sex.

1. Masculine Gender: A noun that denotes male sex is called Masculine Gender.

Examples: boy, lion, dog etc.

2. Feminine Gender: A noun that denotes female sex is called feminine Gender. 

Examples: girl, lioness, cow etc.

3. Common Gender: A noun that denotes either male or female sex or can be used to denote both male and female is called Common Gender.

Examples: child, servant, cousin etc.

4. Neuter Gender: A noun that denotes a lifeless thing is called Neuter Gender (Neither Male/Female)

Examples: pen, pencil, box etc.

1.1.3 Number

1. Singular Number: A noun that denotes only one person or thing is said to be in the Singular Number.

 Examples: boy, girl, pen etc.

2. Plural Number: A noun that denotes more than one is said to be in Plural Number.

(These end with s/es).

Examples: boys, girls, tables etc.

1.1.4 Case

1. Nominative Case: A noun when it is used as the subject of a verb, it is said to be in the Nominative Case.

Example: Jane broke an expensive vase.

Here, Jane is noun and is said to be in the nominative case.

2. Objective Case: A noun, when it is used as the object of a verb, it is said to be in the objective case.

Example: Jane broke an expensive vase.

Here, the noun vase is object in the above sentence and is said to be in the objective case.

3. Possessive Case: A noun, when it is used to show ownership or possession, authority, origin kind etc. it is said to be in the Possessive Case.

Example: This is Robin’s way of doing things.

4. Vocative Case: When the noun is the name of the person spoken to or addressed, it is said to be in the vocative case.

Example: ‘Stand up, Sam’.

In this example, ‘Sam’ is addressed. So Sam is in vocative case.

5. Dative Case: When a noun indicates the indirect object of the verb-generally ‘Give’, it is said to be in the Dative case.

Example: Mr.Rohit gave Sim a file containing some confidential papers.

In the above sentence Sim was the person to whom Mr.Rohit gave a file containing some confidential papers.

1.1.5 Rules:

Rule 1: Proper Nouns are always written with a capital letter at the beginning.

Rule 2: A collective noun usually takes a singular verb and is substituted by a singular pronoun.

Rule 3: A material noun does not take an article (a, an, the) before it. 

Rule 4: Two plurals can be used together only when separated by comma (,) or semi colon (;).