1.        Parts of Speech                                                                                                                  

1.7      Conjunction

1.7.1       Classification of Conjunctions

1.7.2       Some Important Rules


 Conjunction is a word which merely joins words, phrases, and clauses.

Examples: Rashmi is slow but studious.

                 Walk slowly, lest you should fall.

1.7.1 Classification of Conjunctions:

1. Co-Coordinating Conjunctions: The conjunctions which join clauses of equal rank are called Co-Coordinating conjunctions. (and, but, for, or, nor, also, either-or, neither-nor)

2. Sub-Coordinating Conjunctions: It joins together clauses in which one is dependent on the other.

Examples: Since, you wish to excel in life, you must learn English.

                 He is slow, but he is sure.

1.7.2 Some Important Rules:

Rule 1: Some conjunctions are used in pairs only, they are called correlative conjunctions.

List of correlative conjunctions:

Either                     or

Neither                    Nor

Both                       and

Though                    yet

Whether                   or

Not only                   but also

Lest                       should

No sooner                than

As much                  as

Rule 2:  After not either we should use or (not nor).

Rule 3: Both until and unless are negative clauses, therefore no negative expression should be used with them.

Rule 4: After other/rather and with most comparative degrees adjectives the conjunction than is used.

Rule 5: Conjunction that is used in the following forms:

(a)  In indirect narration e.g., He said that he was ill.

(b) ‘That’ as conjunction is not used in interrogative, imperative or exclamatory clauses.

(c) Conjunction ‘that’ is not used in an interrogative adverb or interrogative pronoun in the indirect narration.

Rule 6: After whether/ if we use conjunction ‘or not’ or ‘or no’.

Example: I do not know whether (or if) he has gone or not.

Rule 7: We use ‘because’ to show reason and ‘in order that’ to show purpose.

Examples: He was punished because he was dishonest.

                  I came so early in order that I may meet you.

Rule 8: Conjunction ‘or’ is used to choose one, two or more than two things.

Example: You can go to Kanpur or Lucknow.

Rule 9: While is used in two senses.

(i) To show time or period of time

(ii) To suggest at the same time or along with

Example: While the boys sang, the girls dance.

Rule 10:  As if/As though, both these are imaginary or conditional expressions. We should, therefore, use past conditional tense after them.

Example: He behaved with me as if he were my boss.

Rule 11: Such is used to denote as category whereas ‘such that’ emphasis the degree of something by mentioning its consequences.

Example: Each member of the alliance agrees to take such action as it deems necessary. 



From the given option choose the most appropriate conjunction end fill in the blanks given below

1.     I am sure ________she did so.

(a)   but                           (b)    though

(c)   as                              (d)    that

(e)   of

2.    That man must be either mad________drunk.

(a)   and                           (b)    or

(c)   that                          (d)     for

(e)   with

3.     Neither Ravi_________Rahul were present here

(a)     or                           (b)   nor

(c)     either                      (d)   and

(e)     either ‘a’  or ‘d’

4.      Rakesh is both lame________deaf.

(a)    with                         (b)    and

(c)    that                         (d)    or

(e)    either ‘b’ or ‘d’

5.      She is ____________weak that she cannot walk.

(a)    and                          (b)    that

(c)    so                            (d)    too

(e)    to


1. (d),         2. (b),         3. (b),           4. (b),          5. (c)