1. System Software
It is computer software which manages and controls the hardware so that application software can perform a task. System software helps the end-user to perform specific, productive tasks, such as word processing or image manipulation. An operating system is best example.
System software helps use the operating system and computer system. It includes diagnostic tools, compilers, servers, windowing systems, utilities, language translator, data communication programs, data management programs and more. The purpose of systems software is to insulate the applications programmer as much as possible from the details of the particular computer complex being used, especially memory and other hardware features, and such accessory devices as communications, printers, readers, displays, keyboards and also to partition the computer's resources such as memory and processor time in a safe and stable manner.
The following are the crucial system software explained in +detail:
Desktop environment / Graphical user interface
In graphical computing, a desktop environment (DE) commonly refers to a style of graphical user interface (GUI) that is based on the desktop metaphor which can be seen on most modern personal computers today. On the whole, a desktop environment is to be an intuitive way for the user to interact with the computer using concepts which are similar to those used when interacting with the physical world, such as buttons and windows. These graphical interfaces are designed to assist the user in easily accessing and configuring (or modifying) the most important (or frequently accessed) specific Operating System (OS) packed features.
A desktop environment typically consists of icons, windows, toolbars, folders, wallpapers, and desktop widgets. Software which provides a desktop environment might also provide drag and drop functionality and other features which make the desktop metaphor more complete.
4.1 BIOS (Basic Input/Output System)
In IBM PC Compatible computers, the basic input/output system (BIOS), also known as the System BIOS, is a de facto standard defining a firmware interface.
The BIOS is boot firmware, designed to be the first code run by a PC when powered on. The initial function of the BIOS is to identify, test, and initialize system devices such as the video display card, hard disk, floppy disk and other hardware. The BIOS prepares the machine for a known state, so that software stored on compatible media can be loaded, executed, and given control of the PC. This process is known as booting, or booting up, which is short for bootstrapping.
BIOS programs are stored on a chip and are built to work with various devices that make up the complementary chipset of the system. They provide a small library of basic input/output functions that can be called to operate and control the peripherals such as the keyboard, text display functions and so forth.