1. Application Software
A Word processor is a computer application used for the production (including composition, editing, formatting, and possibly printing) of any sort of printable material.
Examples of Word Processor software are Open office Writer, Microsoft Word, Corel WordPerfect and others. Windows comes with WordPad to edit and format documents and Notepad to edit text.
The keyboard of a word processor is similar to that of a typewriter, but its capabilities extend far beyond the typewriters. For example, by using word wrap, the word processor automatically moves to the next line when user has filled one line with text, and it will readjust text if user changes the margins and allows him to continue typing.
Editing functions such as inserting, deleting, moving, and copying characters, words, lines, and even blocks of text are fast and easy with only a few keystrokes. Advanced programs will number pages, repeat material in the same place on every page automatically, and check the spelling of every word in your document. Finally, copies of documents can be stored on a disk, enabling user to retrieve, edit, and print them at any time.
Word processing typically refers to text manipulation functions such as automatic generation of:
- batch mailings using a form letter template and an address database (also called mail merging);
- indices of keywords and their page numbers;
- tables of contents with section titles and their page numbers;
- tables of figures with caption titles and their page numbers;
- cross-referencing with section or page numbers;
- footnote numbering;
- New versions of a document using variables (e.g. model numbers, product names, etc.)
The detailed Explanation about it is given below:
The text appears at the cursor. Space bar is used to place spaces between words. By pressing Enter (or Return) one can start a new paragraph or insert blank lines. If a mistake occurs while typing backspace or delete can be used to erase it.
Word processor allows typing text in Bold, Italics or Underline. This is useful when user wish to highlight some word or line in a document. To activate Bold, Italics or Underline click the icon button on the Toolbar, type the text to be highlighted, then the user has to click the Toolbar icon again when finished. The indicator on the Toolbar will appear highlighted as long as the highlight style is on.
The text can also be modified by changing the Font. A font is the shape and size of a character of text. Times New Roman, Arial, serif (with tails); sans-serif (without tails); and script (similar to handwriting) are various font styles available. Text colors can also be changed.
Editing text is quite easy once user get used to it. Select text that needs to be modified with the mouse or by holding down Shift and using the arrow keys.
Cut (Ctrl-X) can be used to cut the text from the page and into a clipboard. Copy (Ctrl-C) is used to transfer a copy of the selected text to the clipboard. Paste (Ctrl-V) is used to paste the text into the document at the cursor. The Windows clipboard can hold only a single selection of text which will be replaced with each new cut or copy.
If mistake is made modern programs have an Undo feature (Ctrl-Z). Many also have a Redo feature.
Search and Replace allows directing the word processor to search for a particular word or phrase. User can direct the word processor to replace one group of characters with another everywhere that the first group appears.
The Insert key toggles between Insert and Type over. Sometimes an indicator on the bottom of the screen will display the typing mode the user has selected. Normally, any text after the cursor will be pushed across the screen (inserted) as new characters are typed in. With “Type over” highlighted, the new character will just replace the old character at the cursor. Print allows a document to be printed using printer to get hardcopy.
Most word processors will check spelling and many have thesauruses and will check grammar. A built-in thesaurus allows searching for synonyms without leaving the word processor.
Note: Clipboard is used for short-term data storage and/or data transfer between documents or applications, via copy and paste operations.
Desk Top Publishing describes the way text and graphics can be combined together on a single page which can then be printed out as a high quality print. It is a desk top because one person can do the work in one place instead of needing several people all over the place.
Later desktop publishing programs were specifically designed to allow elaborate layout for publication, but often offered only limited support for editing. Typically, desktop publishing programs allowed users to import text that was written using a text editor or word processor.
Spreadsheet applications are computer programs that let user to create and manipulate spreadsheets electronically. Spreadsheets are used to work with financial information. Some commercial Spreadsheets are Microsoft Excel, Corel QuatroPro, and Lotus 123.
Spreadsheet charts are laid out in numbered rows and lettered columns. Where the row and column intersect is called a cell. The cell is referred to by the letter and the number of intersection called the cell address. The first cell in a chart is at the intersection of column A and row 1 and is referred as Cell A1.
When working with numbers in a spreadsheet, refer to the cell addresses when creating mathematical formulas. This is because any changes made to a single cell will be automatically updated without having to reenter the numbers in the rest of the cells. One can perform simple operations on the cells to get the desired output.
Spreadsheets use formulas to create simple to complex mathematical equations. A sheet can be built to handle the financial needs of businesses. Most of the standard editing features are available in the spreadsheet such as Bold, Italics, Underline, Move, Copy and Paste. Information from a spreadsheet can be displayed in chart form.
Most spreadsheet programs include templates to handle many of the average financial needs of a home user or small business. These templates can be modified or customized to personalize them for own needs.
Most modern spreadsheet programs allow users to work on many sheets at once and access information from any of the sheets in the workbook group.
Database Management Systems
A Database Management System is a collection of program that enables to store, retrieve, modify and search information from a database. A database can be stored in a single file with all the information stored together in a single table which is called a flat database or stored in multiple tables with some common access information referred to as a relational database.
There are many commercial database programs including Microsoft Access, Corel Paradox, FileMaker, IBM DB and MySQL.
Each item in a database has its own Record. Each piece of information about that person or record is stored in Fields. All the information in all the records makes up the Database.
Each Field can have information typed into it. The Tab key is used to move forward through the Field and the Shift-Tab to move backwards. Many databases also allow users to use the arrow keys or move around as well.
Though many fields only allow a single line of input some allow multiple lines. When the cursor reaches the bottom of a field with multiple lines the text will scroll upwards to show any information that is below the line of sight. It is possible to mask individual fields to make data entry easier. For instance the field for phone numbers can be formatted to only allow numbers to be entered.
There are many different ways to use information in a database. In order to use it user can search for and display information using various filters to allow or disallow certain records to display. This is referred to as a query.
The data can be arranged to create reports and print the information in a specific format. It is crucial that the information typed into a database or information updated be saved before leaving the program. Many data errors can be traced back to power-failures or accidental computer shut downs.
The data can also be used by other programs for things like invoicing and form letters. The data from a database can be merged with forms created in other programs for a wide range of uses.
Graphical User Interface
A graphical user interface (GUI) is a user interface which allows people to interact with electronic devices such as computers; hand-held devices such as MP3 Players, Portable Media Players or Gaming devices; household appliances and office equipment with images rather than text commands. A GUI offers graphical icons, and visual indicators, as opposed to text-based interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation to fully represent the information and actions available to a user. The actions are usually performed through direct manipulation of the graphical elements.