Types of Solutions

Types of Solutions

Any states of matter (solid, liquid, or gas) can participate as a solute and as a solvent during the formation of a chemical solution. Therefore, depending on the physical states of solute and solvent, the chemical solution may be classified into the following different types.

Types of solution

Solute

Solvent

Examples

Gas-gas

gas

gas

A mixture of gases that do not undergo chemical reactions. For example, a mixture of air, hydrogen, and helium.

Gas-liquid

gas

liquid

An aqueous hydrogen chloride, aqueous carbon dioxide, aqueous ammonia, etc.

Gas-solid

gas

solid

Hydrogen is absorbed by platinum or palladium to form a gas-solid solution.

Liquid-gas

liquid

gas

Aerosol or water vapour in the air.

Liquid-liquid

liquid

liquid

A mixture of water and ethanol or a mixture of benzene and toluene.

Liquid-solid

liquid

solid

Combination of sodium and mercury in sodium-amalgam (Na/Hg) or a combination of sodium and zinc in zinc-amalgam (Zn/Hg)

Solid-liquid

solid

liquid

The aqueous sodium chloride, sugar, etc.

Solid-solid

solid

solid

Alloys like brass (a mixture of copper and zinc) or bronze (a mixture of copper and tin).

Solid

solid

gas

Camphor in nitrogen gas

 Based on the use of water as a solvent:

·         Aqueous solution: An aqueous solution is created by the dissolution of a solute in water. Examples of aqueous solutions include water-based solutions of glucose, sodium chloride, and soap.

·         Non-Aqueous solution: When a solute is dissolved in a liquid that is not water, such as benzene,acetone, ethanol, carbon disulfide, and so on, the result is a non-aqueous solution.

Based on the quantity of solvent added:

·         Concentrated solution: In a concentrated solution, there is a significant amount of the solute in the provided solvent. Examples include black tea, apple juice, and brine solution.

·         Dilute solution: A diluted solution contains a greater proportion of solvent. 

 Based on the quantity of solute added:

·         Saturated solution: In a saturated solution, the solute is entirely dissolved in the solvent at the specified temperature.

·         Unsaturated solution: A solution that allows for more solute dissolution at the same temperature is said to be unsaturated.

Supersaturated solution: When a solute starts to precipitate out after being dissolved at a specific concentration and temperature, the solution is said to be supersaturated.