Hybridisation

  • The mixing of dissimilar orbital of similar energies to form new set of hybrid orbital.
  • Number of hybrid orbital formed is equal to the no. of orbital taking part in hybridization.
  • Depending upon the different combination of s and p orbitals, these types of hybridization are known.

sp3 hybridization: In this case, one s and three p orbitals hybridise to form four sp3 hybrid orbitals. These four sp3 hybrid orbitals are oriented in a tetrahedral arrangement.

sp2 hybridization: In this case one s and two p orbitals mix together to form three sp2 hybrid orbitals and are oriented in a trigonal planar geometry.

The remaining p orbital if required form side ways overlapping with the other unhybridized p orbital of other C atom and leads to formation of p2C = CH2 bond as in H

sp hybridization: In this case, one s and one p orbital mix together to form two sp hybrid orbitals and are oriented in a linear shape.          

The remaining two unhybridised p orbitals overlap with another unhybridised p orbital leading to the formation of triple bond as in  HCCH.   

Hybridization

Total Number of orbitals taking part

Shape

Examples

Sp

2

(one s and one p)

Linear

 

sp2

3

(one s and two p)

Trigonal planar

 

sp3

4

(one s and three p)

Tetrahedral

 
 

sp3d

5

(one s ,three p and one d)

Trigonal bipyramidal

 

sp3d2

6

(one s ,three p and two d)

Octahedral