Vitamins (Bio Molecules)

Vitamins

•   Vitamins are a group of organic compounds which are essential for normal growth and nutrition and are required in very small amounts for maintaining optimum growth and a good health.

•   Their absence causes specific deficiency diseases.

•   Most of the vitamins cannot be synthesised in our body but plants can synthesise almost all of them.

•   Vitamin D is an exception because it can be made in the skin from exposure to sunlight.

 

Classification of Vitamins

 Vitamins are classified into two groups depending upon their solubility in water or fat.

 

Fat soluble vitamins

Vitamins which are soluble in fat and oils but insoluble in water are kept in this group. These are vitamins A, D, E and K. They are stored in liver and adipose (fat storing) tissues.

 

Water soluble vitamins

B group vitamins and vitamin C are soluble in water so they are grouped together. Water soluble vitamins must be supplied regularly in diet because they are readily excreted in urine and cannot be stored (except vitamin B12) in our body.

 

Diseases caused by vitamin deficiency

 

SI.No

Name of Vitamins

Sources

Deflelency diseases

1.

Vitamin A

Fish liver oil, carrots,
butter and milk

X e r o p h t h a l m i a
(hardening of cornea of
eye)
Night blindness

2.

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)

Yeast, milk, green
vegetables and cereals

Beri beri (loss of appetite,
retarded growth)

3.

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

Milk, eggwhite, liver,
kidney

Cheilosis (fissuring at
corners of mouth and
lips), digestive disorders
and burning sensation
of the skin.

4.

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

Yeast, milk, egg yolk,
cereals and grams

Convulsions

5.

Vitamin B12

Meat, fish, egg and
curd

Pernicious anaemia
(RBC deficient in
haemoglobin)

6.

Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)

Citrus fruits, amla and
green leafy vegetables

Scurvy (bleeding gums)

7.

Vitamin D

Exposure to sunlight,
fish and egg yolk

Rickets (bone deformities
in children) and osteomalacia
(soft bones and
joint pain in adults)

8.

Vitamin E

Vegetable oils like wheat
germ oil, sunflower oil,
etc.

Increased fragility of
RBCs and muscular
weakness

9.

Vitamin K

Green leafy vegetables

Increased blood clotting
time