P Block Elements



1.     The last electron in p-block elements enters the outermost p orbital.

2.     There are six groups of p-block elements in the periodic table, numbered 13 to 18.

3.     The valence shell electronic configuration of p-block elements is ns2np1-6 (except for He).

4.     The difference in the inner core of elements greatly influences their physical and chemical properties.

5.     The maximum oxidation state shown by a p-block element is equal to the total number of valence electrons.

6.     Non-metals and metalloids exist only in the p-block of the periodic table.

7.     Non-metallic character of elements decreases down the group.

8.     The heaviest element in each p-block group is the most metallic in nature.

9.     Non-metals have higher ionisation enthalpies and electronegativities than metals.

10.  Compounds formed by highly reactive non-metals with highly reactive metals are generally ionic in nature.

11.  Compounds formed between non-metals themselves are largely covalent in character.

12. The nature of oxides formed by p-block elements changes from acidic or neutral for non-metal oxides to basic for metal oxides.

13.  The first member of p-block differs from the remaining members in their corresponding group in two major respects - size and effect of d-orbitals in the valence shell of heavier elements.

14.  The second period elements of p-groups starting from boron are restricted to a maximum covalence of four.