Occurrence and Extraction of Metals:
Mineral: Minerals are naturally occurring substances which have a uniform composition.

Ores: The minerals from which a metal can be profitably extracted are called Ores.

Extraction of Metals:

Metals can be categorised into three parts on the basis of their reactivity: Most reactive, medium reactive and least reactive.

The three major steps involved in the extraction of a metal from its ore are

  1. Concentration or enrichment of ores.
  2. Conversion of concentrated ore into crude metal and,
  3. Refining of impure or crude metal.