Law and Social Justice




Imagine a world where everyone is treated fairly, regardless of their background or circumstances. This ideal of fairness and equality is what law and social justice strive to achieve. In this chapter, we'll explore these concepts and their importance in building a just society.

·         Law: A set of rules and regulations established by a government to maintain order and ensure the well-being of its citizens.

·         Social Justice: The fair and equitable treatment of all individuals and groups in society, regardless of their social status, religion, gender, caste, or any other factor.


According to a law on minimum wages, a worker has to be paid not less than the minimum wage by the employer. There are other laws that protect the interests of producers and consumers in the market. These help ensure that the relations between these three parties i.e the worker, consumer and producer, are governed in a manner that is not exploitative. By making, enforcing and upholding laws, the government can control the activities of individuals or private companies so as to ensure social justice.

What is a Worker’s Worth?

In India, one worker can easily replace another. There is so much unemployment that many workers are willing to work in unsafe conditions in return for a wage. Thus, even so, many years after the Bhopal gas tragedy, there are regular reports of accidents in construction sites, mines or factories due to the callous attitude of the employers.

A worker’s worth is the value he/she has in the eyes of the industry he/she is employed in.

A worker’s worth in India is a mix of what they earn, what they do, and how much they enjoy it. It's also about recognizing their right to be treated fairly and live well, no matter what job they have.

Enforcement of Safety Laws

Imagine this: you're at work, excited about tackling a new project. Suddenly, a piece of faulty equipment malfunctions, putting you and your colleagues in danger. Scary, right? This is where safety laws come in, like superheroes guarding our well-being in various environments. But just like any superhero, safety laws need enforcement to truly protect us.

What are safety laws?

Think of them as rules of the game, ensuring everyone's safety in different situations. We have laws for workplaces, construction sites, even the food we eat! These laws outline things like:

·         Safe working conditions: Proper equipment, protective gear, and clear guidelines to avoid accidents.

·         Environmental protection: Safe disposal of hazardous materials and regulations for factories to minimize pollution.

·         Product safety: Standards for food, toys, and other products to ensure they don't harm consumers.

But who enforces these laws?

Enter the safety inspectors: the watchful guardians who make sure everyone plays by the safety rules. They visit workplaces, check if machines are functioning properly, and ensure companies follow safety regulations. If they find something wrong, they can issue warnings, fines, or even shut down operations until things are fixed.

Why is enforcement important?

Just like a broken traffic light can lead to chaos, ignoring safety laws can have serious consequences:

·         Accidents and injuries: Faulty equipment can lead to workplace accidents, harming workers or even causing fatalities.

·         Environmental damage: Improper waste disposal can pollute water and air, harming ecosystems and our health.

·         Product-related illnesses: Unsafe food or toys can cause illnesses and injuries, especially for vulnerable populations.

So, how can we improve enforcement?

·         Adequate resources: Providing safety inspectors with enough staff, training, and equipment helps them do their job effectively.

·         Public awareness: Educating people about safety laws and their importance empowers them to report violations and demand better protection.

·         Strong penalties: Hefty fines and strict consequences for disregarding safety laws deter companies from cutting corners and prioritize worker and environmental well-being.


The government is supposed to ensure that safety laws are implemented. It is also the duty of the government to ensure that the Right to Life guaranteed under Article 21 of the Constitution is not violated.

As we can see from the Bhopal Gas Tragedy, the negligence of the government is the reason for such a hazardous disaster.

1.     Government officials refused to recognise the plant as hazardous and allowed it to come up in a populated locality.

2.     The Government didn’t ask Union Carbide to shift to cleaner technology or safer procedures.

3.     Government inspectors continued to approve the procedures in the plant, even when repeated incidents of leaks from the plant made it obvious to everybody that things were seriously wrong.

Safety was being disregarded both by the government and by private companies in this case.

New Laws to Protect the Environment

The environment was treated as a ‘free’ entity, and any industry could pollute the air and water without any restrictions. The Bhopal disaster brought the issue of the environment to the forefront. In response to this, the Indian Government introduced new laws on the environment.

The Right to Life is a Fundamental Right under Article 21 of the Constitution, and it includes the right to the enjoyment of pollution-free water and air for the full enjoyment of life. The courts gave a number of judgments upholding the right to a healthy environment as intrinsic to the Fundamental Right to Life. The government is responsible for setting up laws and procedures that can check pollution, clean rivers and introduce heavy fines for those who pollute.

A major role of the government is to control the activities of private companies by making, enforcing and upholding laws so as to prevent unfair practices and ensure social justice. Laws that are weak and poorly enforced can cause serious harm, as the Bhopal gas tragedy showed. Apart from the government, people should also exert pressure so that both private companies and the government act in the interests of society.