Crop Production and Management

Crop Production and Management



  • Crop production is the process of cultivating plants for human use, encompassing various agricultural activities to grow crops efficiently. 
  • It involves the careful management of soil, water, seeds, and various tools to cultivate crops like cereals, fruits, vegetables, and other essential plants. 
  • Effective crop management includes activities such as soil preparation, planting, irrigation, pest control, and harvesting. 
  • This vital process ensures the continuous production of food to sustain growing populations globally. 
  • Proper management practices, including crop rotation, pest and disease control, and the use of suitable agricultural techniques, are crucial for sustaining high-quality crop yields. 
  • Efficient distribution and timely harvesting are imperative to meet the nutritional demands of a large population, ensuring food security and sustainability.


Agricultural Practices

  • Crop:

When a lot of the same kind of plants are grown together in one place, it's called a crop. For instance, a wheat crop means all the plants in that area are wheat. 

  • Types of Crops:

Crops come in various types such as cereals (like rice, wheat), vegetables (like carrots, tomatoes), and fruits (like apples, oranges). 

  • Crops Based on Seasons:

In India, because the weather changes in different regions, crops are divided into two main types based on the seasons they grow in. 

1. Kharif Crops:

- These are crops sown during the rainy season, usually between June and September.

- Examples include paddy, maize, soybean, groundnut, and cotton. 

2. Rabi Crops:

- These are grown in the winter season, from October to March.

- Examples are wheat, gram, pea, mustard, and linseed. 

  • Other Crops:

- Apart from Kharif and Rabi, there are also pulses and vegetables grown during the summer in many places.

- The crops that are grown during the summer season are often referred to as "Zaid crops."

- These include various vegetables such as cucumber, bitter gourd, ridge gourd, and leafy greens like spinach and fenugreek, among others.

- These crops are typically cultivated during the summer months when the weather is warmer.


Basic Practices of Crop Production:

  • Cultivation Process:

- Growing crops involves many tasks that farmers perform over a period of time. 

  • The process of cultivation includes sowing, nurturing, and harvesting crops. 
  • Agricultural practices are simply the things that farmers do to grow and take care of crops or raise animals. These actions include things like choosing what to grow, preparing the soil, planting seeds, giving the plants water and nutrients, protecting them from pests and diseases, and harvesting the crops when they're ready. It's all about the ways farmers work to produce the food and materials we use every day. 
  • Stages of Crop Production/ agricultural practices:

1. Preparation of soil

2. Sowing

3. Adding manure and fertilisers

4. Irrigation

5. Protecting from weeds

6. Harvesting

7. Storage


Preparation of Soil

Importance of Soil Preparation:

- Loosening the Soil:

Allows roots to penetrate easily and access air. 

- Benefit to Organisms:

Aids earthworms and microbes in enriching the soil with humus. 

- Nutrient Release:

Decomposition of dead matter by organisms releases nutrients back into the soil. 

  • Significance of Turning and Loosening Soil:

- Nutrient Availability:

The top layer holds vital nutrients needed for plant growth. 

- Tilling or Ploughing:

Process of turning and loosening the soil, aiding in bringing nutrient-rich soil to the surface for plants to access. 

- Equipment Used:

Ploughs (wooden or iron-made tools) are used to perform this task, ensuring better soil conditions for cultivation. 

  • Steps in Soil Preparation:

- Moistening Dry Soil:

Dry soil may require watering before ploughing. 

- Clump Breakage:

Breaking up large soil clumps post-ploughing. 

- Levelling the Field:

Essential for sowing seeds and irrigation, achieved with the help of a leveller. 

- Manure Addition:

Sometimes added to enhance soil quality before tilling, aiding in better nutrient distribution. 

- Moistening Before Sowing:

Ensures the soil is adequately hydrated for successful seed planting. 

Agricultural Implements for Soil Preparation

  • Agricultural implements like the plough, hoe, and modern cultivators play crucial roles in soil preparation before sowing. 
  • Plough

- Purpose:

Used for tilling, adding fertilizers, weed removal, and turning soil.

- Design:

Traditionally wooden, now increasingly replaced by iron-made ploughs. 

- Components:

Contains a triangular iron strip called the ploughshare.

It consists of a long log (ploughshaft) with a handle and is drawn by animals (bulls, horses, camels).




  • Hoe

- Function:

Simple tool for weed removal and soil loosening. 

- Structure:

Comprises a long wood or iron rod with a strong, broad, and bent iron plate at one end, resembling a blade. 

- Operation:

Pulled by animals for field work.




  • Cultivator

- Modern Alternative:

Tractor-driven implement replacing manual ploughing. 

- Advantages:

Enhances efficiency, saving labor and time in the soil preparation process.





  • Evolution of Tools

- Historical Use:

Ploughs, hoes, and manual tools were traditionally used for soil preparation. 

- Transition to Mechanization:

Introduction of tractor-driven cultivators for more efficient and quicker agricultural practices. 


  • Sowing is an important part in crop production. 
  • Before sowing seed selection is done so as to produce a good quality crop. 
  • Criteria for Selection:

Good quality, clean, and healthy seeds of high-yielding varieties are preferred by farmers. 

  • Floating Seeds:

Damaged seeds with hollowness are lighter, causing them to float on water, aiding in the separation of healthy seeds from damaged ones.




  • Lighter, hollow seeds float while denser, healthy seeds sink due to their weight. 
  • Method of Separation: Using water to differentiate and select viable seeds for sowing. 
  • Understanding the tools used for the sowing process is crucial. 
  • Various tools like seed drills, broadcast seeders, planters, or manual techniques are used for seed sowing.
  •      Aids in precise seed placement, ensuring proper spacing for healthy plant growth. 
  • Traditional Seed Sowing Tool

- Funnel-shaped tools used traditionally for seed sowing. 

- Seeds filled into the funnel pass through sharp-ended pipes, piercing the soil and placing seeds at desired spots.



  • Seed Drill (Modern Sowing Implement)

- Seed drills are employed with tractors for efficient sowing. 

- Ensures uniform seed distribution at equal distances and depths. 

- Ensures seeds are covered by soil, preventing bird consumption. 

- Saves time, labor, and promotes efficient sowing practices.





  • Importance of Seed Spacing

- Appropriate seed distance prevents overcrowding, allowing sufficient sunlight, nutrients, and water for plant growth. 

- Occasionally, removal of excess plants might be necessary to prevent overcrowding and ensure optimal growth conditions.


Adding Manure and Fertilisers

  • Soil supplies crucial mineral nutrients vital for plant growth. 
  • Continuous crop growth exhausts soil nutrients, requiring replenishment for sustained productivity. 
  • Substances added to the soil to provide nutrients for healthy plant growth are referred to as manure and fertilisers.


  • Manure:

- Derived from decomposed plant or animal waste, improving soil quality. 

- Through microbial decomposition in pits, organic manure is obtained. 

- Enhances soil nutrients, texture, water retention, and fosters beneficial microbial activity. 

- Organic manure improves water retention, aeration, fosters microbial growth, and ameliorates soil texture for better plant growth. 

  • Fertilisers:

- Fertiliser is a manufactured chemical-rich nutrients like urea, super phosphate, NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium). 

- Enhances crop yield but excessive use leads to soil fertility reduction and water pollution. 

  • Substituting fertilisers with organic manure or employing fallow periods between crops preserves soil fertility. 
  • Utilizing crop rotation, adopting practices like legume-wheat alternation, employing Rhizobium bacteria for nitrogen fixation are the ways to replenish nutrients in the soil. 
  • Crop Rotation Method

- Alternating the growth of different crops in successive seasons. 

- Farmers in northern India historically interchanged legumes for fodder and wheat crops. 

- Restored soil nitrogen by utilizing legumes, aiding in replenishing soil fertility. 

- Present-day farmers are urged to adopt this beneficial crop rotation practice. 

  • Role of Leguminous Rhizobium Symbiosis

- Rhizobium Bacteria reside in nodules of legume plant roots, forming a symbiotic relationship. 

  • Rhizobium converts atmospheric nitrogen into usable forms for plants. 
  • It aids in enriching soil nitrogen levels, enhancing plant growth. 
  • Benefits of Crop Rotation and Rhizobium Symbiosis

- Crop rotation method aids in soil nutrient restoration, specifically nitrogen. 

- Reduces dependence on external fertilisers, promoting more eco-friendly agricultural practices. 

- Rhizobium's nitrogen-fixing ability supports plant growth and maintains soil health.



  • Water is crucial for proper growth and development in all living organisms, including plants. 
  • Plant roots absorb water along with minerals and fertilisers, crucial for plant health and growth. 
  • Plants consist of approximately 90% water, playing a significant role in various plant functions. 
  • Water is essential for seed germination and transporting dissolved nutrients to all plant parts. 
  • Water shields crops from frost and excessive heat, maintaining their health. 
  • Regular watering ensures soil moisture, essential for healthy crop growth. 
  • Supplying water to crops at regular intervals to maintain soil moisture. 
  • Time and frequency of irrigation vary based on the crop type, soil quality, and seasonal conditions. 
  • Higher watering frequency in summer is due to increased water evaporation from soil and leaves. 
  • Wells, tubewells, ponds, lakes, rivers, dams, and canals serve as sources for agricultural irrigation. 

Traditional Methods of Irrigation

Moat (Pulley-System):

  • Utilizes pulley mechanisms to lift water from wells, canals, or lakes.
  • Involves manual labour or animal assistance for water extraction, though cost-effective, it's less efficient.




Chain Pump:

  • Lifts water through a chain mechanism, operated manually or by animals.
  • Similar to the moat, employing human or cattle power for water extraction.




Dhekli and Rahat (Lever System):

  • Mechanisms involving lever systems for water lifting, requiring human or animal labor for operation.
  • Though cheaper, these methods are less efficient due to their reliance on manual labor.






Modern Methods

Sprinkler System:

  • Effective for uneven land or areas with water scarcity.
  • Utilizes pipes with rotating nozzles connected to a main pipeline for controlled water distribution, simulating rainfall.
  •   Widely used for various crops, coffee plantations, and lawns.





Drip System:

  • Delivers water drop by drop directly to the plant roots, reducing water wastage.
  • Ideal for fruit plants, gardens, and trees, especially in regions with limited water availability.
  • Highly efficient in conserving water and supporting plant growth.



Advantages of Modern Methods

  • Both the sprinkler and drip systems conserve water efficiently, reducing wastage.
  • Direct application near roots in the drip system ensures optimal plant hydration, minimizing water loss.
  • Ideal for areas with water scarcity or uneven terrains, ensuring better utilization of available water resources.

Protection from Weeds

  • Weeds, the unwanted plants in a crop field, can negatively impact crop growth. 
  • The process of removing weeds is known as weeding, and it's crucial because weeds compete with crops for water, nutrients, space, and light. 
  • Additionally, some weeds can interfere with harvesting and pose risks to both animals and humans. 
  • Methods of Weed Control

1. Tilling Before Sowing:

- Helps uproot and kill weeds, allowing them to dry up and integrate with the soil. 

- Effective in preventing weed growth before crops are planted. 

2. Manual Removal with Khurpi:

- Physically uprooting or cutting weeds close to the ground.





- Done periodically to keep the weed population in check. 

3. Seed Drill Usage:

- Utilized to uproot weeds mechanically, contributing to weed control efforts. 

4. Chemical Control - Weedicides:

- Certain chemicals, like 2,4-D (weedicides), are sprayed in fields to kill weeds without harming crops. 

- Applied during the vegetative growth of weeds, before flowering and seed formation. 

  • Safety Measures for Chemical Use

- Weedicides should be applied before weeds flower and produce seeds. 

- Farmers should use protective measures like covering their nose and mouth during chemical spraying to avoid health risks. 

- Weedicides should be used cautiously to prevent adverse effects on farmers' health.



  • Harvesting marks a crucial phase in crop cultivation, involving the cutting of mature crops, typically taking 3 to 4 months for cereal crops to reach maturity.  
  • The harvesting process can be manual, using a sickle, or mechanized, employing a harvester machine. 
  • Manual Harvesting with Sickle:

- Crops are manually cut close to the ground using sickles. 

- Common practice in many regions, especially for smaller land holdings.




  • Mechanized Harvesting with Harvester:

- Involves the use of a machine called a harvester for efficient and rapid crop cutting. 

- Enhances productivity, especially in larger agricultural settings. 

  • After harvesting, the next step is threshing, where grain seeds are separated from the chaff. 
  • Mechanized threshing is often accomplished using a machine called a 'combine,' which serves as both a harvester and a thresher.





  • Small-scale farmers with limited land holdings may opt for manual separation through winnowing. 
  • Winnowing is an agricultural method employed to separate grain or seed from chaff (husk or outer covering) by utilizing air currents. This process involves tossing a mixture of grain and chaff into the air. As the mixture descends, the lighter chaff is carried away by the wind, leaving behind the heavier grains. Winnowing is a traditional and effective technique for cleaning harvested grains, ensuring the removal of unwanted husks or debris, and enhancing the quality of the edible portion for storage or further processing.





  •  Harvest Festivals: Celebrating the Fruits of Labor. 
  • The culmination of months of hard work is celebrated during harvest festivals. 
  • Farmers, filled with joy and a sense of well-bein
  • Large-scale storage is often managed in silos and granaries to protect against rats and insects.







  • These structures safeguard grains and contribute to the longevity of stored produce. 
  • Dried neem leaves serve as a natural means for storing food grains at home. 
  • Chemical treatments are employed in significant storage facilities (like godowns) to protect grains from pests and microorganisms.


Food from Animals

  • Animals provide diverse food options, adding to the nutritional variety in our diets. 
  • Coastal communities often rely heavily on fish as a primary food source. 
  • Similar to the steps involved in crop production, animals raised at home or on farms require meticulous attention to their diet, living conditions, and overall well-being. 
  • The large-scale management of animals, encompassing their nutrition, shelter, and care, is termed animal husbandry. 
  • This systematic approach ensures the optimal health and productivity of animals.