Morphology of Frog


  • Frogs, belonging to the class Amphibia in the phylum Chordata, are versatile creatures capable of living both on land and in freshwater.
  • The common frog species in India is Rana tigrina.
  • Frogs are considered cold-blooded or poikilothermic animals, meaning their body temperature fluctuates with the temperature of their environment.
  • They possess the remarkable ability to change their skin color, allowing them to blend in with their surroundings, which serves as a protective mechanism known as mimicry.
  • During peak summer and winter months, frogs are often not visible as they take refuge in deep burrows to escape extreme temperatures. This behavior is referred to as aestivation during summer and hibernation during winter. These periods of inactivity help protect them from harsh environmental conditions.
  • Frogs offer several benefits to mankind and play a significant role in the ecosystem:

- Frogs serve as natural pest controllers as they primarily feed on insects, which helps protect crops from insect infestations.

- They contribute to maintaining ecological balance by occupying a crucial position in food chains and food webs within their ecosystems.

- In some regions, frog legs, known for their muscular content, are considered a delicacy and are consumed as food by humans, serving as a source of sustenance and economic activity in certain cultures. 

Morphology of Frog

  • The skin of a frog is smooth and slimy, due to the presence of mucus, and is consistently kept moist. The dorsal side is typically olive green with dark irregular spots, while the ventral side is uniformly pale yellow.
  • Frogs maintain their moisture balance by absorbing water through their skin and do not typically drink water.
  • The body of a frog consists of a head and trunk; it lacks a neck and tail.
  • Above the mouth, frogs have a pair of nostrils.
  • Their bulging eyes are covered by a protective nictitating membrane.
  • Membranous tympana, which serve as ears, are located on either side of the eyes to receive sound signals.
  • Frogs have forelimbs and hind limbs that facilitate swimming, walking, leaping, and burrowing. The hind limbs are larger and more muscular, ending in five digits, while the forelimbs have four digits. These digits are webbed to aid in swimming.
  • Male frogs exhibit sexual dimorphism with the presence of vocal sacs for sound production and a copulatory pad on the first digit of the forelimbs, which are absent in female frogs.