Anatomy of Cockroach

Anatomy of Cockroach 

1. Body Structure:

  • Cockroaches are brown or black insects belonging to the class Insecta in Phylum Arthropoda. They have a size ranging from ¼ inches to 3 inches (0.6-7.6 cm).
  • They possess long antennae, legs, and a flat upper body wall that conceals the head. 

2. Digestive System:

  • The alimentary canal of a cockroach is divided into three regions: foregut, midgut, and hindgut.
  • The mouth leads to the pharynx and then the oesophagus, followed by a crop used for food storage. Next is the gizzard, which grinds food particles.
  • Hepatic or gastric caecae secrete digestive juices at the junction of the foregut and midgut.
  • Malphigian tubules, numbering 100-150, are present at the junction of the midgut and hindgut and help in excretion.
  • The hindgut is divided into ileum, colon, and rectum, with waste expelled through the anus.


3. Circulatory System:

  • The blood vascular system in cockroaches is an open type. Blood vessels open into a space known as the haemocoel, where visceral organs are bathed in haemolymph.
  • Haemolymph consists of colorless plasma and haemocytes.
  • The heart of a cockroach is an elongated muscular tube with chambers and ostia on either side. It pumps blood anteriorly to the sinuses.


4. Respiratory System:

  • Cockroaches have a network of trachea, which opens through 10 pairs of small holes known as spiracles on the lateral side of the body.
  • Thin branching tubes (tracheoles) carry oxygen to different body parts, and sphincters regulate the opening of spiracles. 

5. Excretory System:

  • Excretion is primarily performed by Malpighian tubules, which absorb nitrogenous waste products and convert them into uric acid. Therefore, this insect is called uricotelic.
  • Fat body, nephrocytes, and urecose glands also aid in excretion.

 6. Nervous System:

  • The nervous system of a cockroach consists of a series of fused, segmentally arranged ganglia joined by paired longitudinal connectives on the ventral side.
  • In the head, the brain is represented by the supra-oesophageal ganglion, which supplies nerves to antennae and compound eyes.
  • Sense organs in cockroaches include antennae, eyes, maxillary palps, labial palps, and anal cerci.
  • Compound eyes consist of numerous hexagonal ommatidia, contributing to mosaic vision with sensitivity but less resolution.

 7. Reproductive System:

  • Cockroaches are dioecious, with well-developed reproductive organs in both sexes.
  • The male reproductive system includes testes, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory duct, and male gonopore.
  • A mushroom-shaped gland functions as an accessory reproductive gland.
  • The female reproductive system comprises ovaries, ovarian tubules, oviducts, spermatheca, and the formation of oothecae for egg deposition.
  • Cockroaches reproduce through spermatophores, and the nymphs (immature stage of cockroaches) grow by molting until they reach the adult stage.