Male Reproductive System in Humans

Male Reproductive System:

 

  • Location: The male reproductive system is located in the pelvic region.
  • Testes: Paired oval-shaped organs located in the scrotum. Each testis is about 4 to 5 cm in length and 2 to 3 cm in width. Testes contain about 250 compartments called testicular lobules.
  • Scrotum: A pouch that houses the testes outside the abdominal cavity. It helps maintain a lower temperature (2-2.5°C lower than the internal body temperature) required for spermatogenesis.

 

Male reproductive system 

(sectional view)

 

  • Seminiferous Tubules: Highly coiled tubules within each testicular lobule where sperms are produced. Contains male germ cells (spermatogonia) and Sertoli cells. Sertoli cells provide nutrition to germ cells.
  • Interstitial Spaces: Located outside the seminiferous tubules, these spaces contain small blood vessels, Leydig cells, and other immunologically competent cells. Leydig cells synthesise and secrete androgens.

 

Sectional view of seminiferous tubules

 

  • Male Sex Accessory Ducts: Includes rete testis, vasa efferentia, epididymis, vas deferens, and ejaculatory duct.

- Rete Testis: Tubules that connect seminiferous tubules to vasa efferentia.

- Vasa Efferentia: Ducts that leave the testis and open into the epididymis.

- Epididymis: Located along the posterior surface of each testis, it receives sperm from the vasa efferentia. The epididymis leads to the vas deferens.

- Vas Deferens: Ascends to the abdomen and loops over the urinary bladder. It receives a duct from the seminal vesicle and opens into the urethra as the ejaculatory duct.

- Ejaculatory duct: It is formed by the fusion of the vas deferens (the duct that carries sperm from the epididymis) and a duct from the seminal vesicle (a male accessory gland). The ejaculatory duct passes through the prostate gland and opens into the urethra, which is the tube that carries both urine and semen out of the body through the penis. During ejaculation, the ejaculatory duct contracts, allowing sperm and seminal fluid to be propelled into the urethra for ejaculation.

 

  • Urethra: Originates from the urinary bladder and extends through the penis to the external opening called the urethral meatus.
  • Penis: Male external genitalia made up of special tissue that facilitates erection. The glans penis is the enlarged end covered by foreskin.
  • Male Accessory Glands: Includes seminal vesicles, prostate, and bulbourethral glands.

- Seminal Vesicles: Paired glands that contribute to seminal plasma, which is rich in fructose, calcium, and enzymes.

- Prostate Gland: A gland that secretes components of seminal plasma.

- Bulbourethral Glands: Paired glands that secrete fluids for lubrication of the penis.

 

Male reproductive system 

(frontal view)