Birth in Human

Birth in humans (Parturition):


  • Human pregnancy lasts about 9 months, known as the gestation period.
  • Parturition is the process of childbirth, induced by a complex neuroendocrine mechanism.
  • Signals for parturition come from the fully developed foetus and the placenta, leading to mild uterine contractions called the foetal ejection reflex.
  • Foetal ejection reflex triggers the release of oxytocin from the maternal pituitary gland.
  • Oxytocin acts on the uterine muscle, causing stronger contractions and further secretion of oxytocin.
  • This reflex loop leads to increasingly stronger contractions, resulting in the expulsion of the baby through the birth canal.


Human foetus inside the uterus 


  • Induction of Delivery:

- Doctors may use synthetic oxytocin (Pitocin) to induce delivery in certain situations.

- Pitocin is administered intravenously to stimulate uterine contractions and initiate labour.

  • Lactation:

- During pregnancy, mammary glands undergo differentiation and preparation for milk production.

- Lactation starts towards the end of pregnancy.

- Milk production is initiated by the process called lactogenesis.

- Colostrum is the milk produced in the initial days after childbirth, rich in antibodies for newborn immunity.

- Breastfeeding during this period is recommended for the baby's health and immunity development.