Infertility

Infertility

 

  • Infertility is a common issue globally, including India, where many couples cannot conceive despite unprotected intercourse.
  • Causes of infertility include physical, congenital, disease-related, drug-induced, immunological, or psychological factors.
  • Often, females are unjustly blamed for infertility, whereas the problem may lie with the male partner.
  • Infertility clinics can aid in diagnosing and treating certain disorders to help couples have children.
  • Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) offer alternatives when corrective measures are not possible.

 

In vitro fertilisation (IVF)

In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF) is a scientific technique to help couples who face difficulties in having babies naturally. It involves combining a woman's egg and a man's sperm outside the body to create an embryo, which is then placed inside the woman's uterus for pregnancy. 

Process-

1. Egg Retrieval: The female partner takes special medicines to stimulate her ovaries, causing them to produce multiple eggs.

2. Egg Collection: The eggs are carefully collected from the ovaries using a small medical procedure.

3. Sperm Contribution: The male partner provides his sperm. Alternatively, sperm from a donor can be used if required.

4. Fertilisation Process: In a controlled environment, the eggs and sperm are combined, allowing fertilisation to occur.

5. Embryo Development: The resulting embryos are observed as they grow and develop for a few days.

6. Embryo Transfer: One or more healthy embryos are placed into the woman's uterus, aiming for successful implantation. 

 

Zygote intra fallopian transfer (ZIFT)

Zygote IntraFallopian Transfer (ZIFT) is a scientific way to help couples who want to have a baby but are facing difficulties. It's like giving nature a little boost to make a baby happen. 

Process - 

1. Getting the Egg: The doctor helps the woman's body produce eggs using special medicines.

2. Collecting Eggs: The eggs are gently taken out from the woman's body using a simple procedure.

3. Sperm Injection: The man's sperm is mixed with the eggs to try and make a baby.

4. Fertilised Egg (Zygote): When the sperm and egg meet and start growing, it's called a zygote.

5. Placing in Fallopian Tube: The zygote is put back into the woman's body, but instead of the uterus, it's placed into a fallopian tube.

6. Natural Journey: The zygote travels through the fallopian tube just like in a regular pregnancy. 

 

Intrauterine transfer (IUT)

Intrauterine Transfer (IUT) is a scientific method that helps couples who want to have a baby but face challenges. It's like lending a hand to nature for starting a family. 

Process -

1. Egg Preparation: The doctor uses special medicines to help the woman's body make eggs.

2. Collecting Eggs: The eggs are carefully taken out from the woman's body using a simple procedure.

3. Sperm Mix: The man's sperm is mixed with the eggs to try and create a baby.

4. Embryo Formation: When the sperm meets the egg and they begin to grow together, it's called an embryo.

5. Placing in Uterus: The embryo is gently put into the woman's uterus, where it can hopefully attach and grow.

6. Nature's Course: The embryo follows its natural path in the uterus, just like in a regular pregnancy. 

 

Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)

Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT) is a scientific technique aimed at assisting couples struggling with fertility issues. It involves placing the crucial components of reproduction directly within the woman's reproductive system. 

Process - 

1. Ovum and Sperm Preparation: The woman's ovaries are stimulated to produce mature eggs, and the man provides a sperm sample.

2. Oocyte Retrieval: The mature eggs are gently retrieved from the woman's ovaries through a minor procedure.

3. Gamete Combination: The eggs and sperm are united in a laboratory dish outside the body, striving for fertilisation.

4. Fallopian Tube Placement: The mixture of gametes is inserted into the woman's fallopian tube.

5. Natural Union: Within the fallopian tube, the natural meeting of egg and sperm occurs, potentially leading to fertilisation.

6. Natural Fertilisation: If fertilisation occurs, it takes place in the fallopian tube, replicating a natural process. 

 

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)

Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is a precise scientific technique used to help couples facing fertility challenges. It's like giving a little helping hand to the sperm to make sure it joins with the egg. 

Process -

1. Egg Preparation: The woman takes special medicines to help her ovaries produce mature eggs.

2. Egg Retrieval: The eggs are carefully collected from the woman's ovaries using a gentle procedure.

3. Sperm Collection: A sperm sample is collected from the man or a donor.

4. Single Sperm Injection: A single healthy sperm is directly injected into a mature egg.

5. Fertilisation: With the sperm now inside the egg, fertilisation can happen naturally.

Embryo Development: Once fertilised, the egg starts growing into an embryo.

6. Embryo Transfer: The healthy embryo is transferred to the woman's uterus to implant and grow.

 

Artificial insemination (AI)

Artificial Insemination (AI) is a scientific method that helps couples facing difficulties in getting pregnant. It's like giving a little boost to the natural process of conception. 

Process -

1. Sperm Collection: The man provides a sperm sample.

2. Sperm Processing: The sperm is processed in a lab to prepare it for insemination.

3. Insemination: The prepared sperm is gently placed into the woman's uterus or cervix.

4. Natural Journey: The sperm's journey to meet the egg happens as usual, but with a little help.

 

Intrauterine insemination (IUI)

Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) is a scientific technique that helps couples who are finding it difficult to have a baby. It's like giving a helping hand to the sperm to make its way to meet the egg. 

Process -

1. Sperm Preparation: The man provides a sperm sample.

2. Sperm Washing: The sperm is carefully separated from the semen in a lab.

3. Insertion: The prepared sperm is placed directly into the woman's uterus.

4. Natural Journey: The sperm's journey to reach the egg happens as usual, but with a little guidance.

 

- These techniques require specialised handling and expensive equipment, making them available in limited centres and affordable to a few.

- Emotional, religious, and social factors may discourage some from adopting these methods.

- Legal adoption remains a compassionate option, considering the many orphaned and destitute children in India who need a loving home and care.