Support Movement and Locomotion in Humans (Introduction)

Support Movement and Locomotion in Humans




  • Movement is a vital characteristic of living organisms, observed across animals and plants, ranging from simple to complex forms. 
  • Unicellular Organisms: Protists like Amoeba exhibit movement through the streaming of protoplasm. 
  • Multi-cellular Organisms: Various movements such as ciliary, flagellar, and tentacular movements are observed in organisms. 
  • Human Beings: Human movements include limb movement, jaw movement, eyelid blinking, tongue movement, etc. 
  • Amoeboid Movement:

- Exhibited by specialized cells like macrophages and leukocytes. 

- Pseudopodia formation through the streaming of protoplasm, similar to Amoeba. 

- Cytoskeletal elements like microfilaments participate in amoeboid movement. 

  • Ciliary Movement:

- Found in internal tubular organs lined by ciliated epithelium. 

- Coordinated ciliary movements help in removing dust particles and foreign substances from the trachea. They also facilitate the passage of ova through the female reproductive tract. 

  • Muscular Movement:

- Movement of limbs, jaws, tongue, etc., is driven by muscular contractions. 

- Muscles' contractile property is crucial for locomotion and various other movements in humans and multicellular organisms. 

- Effective locomotion requires coordinated activity among the muscular, skeletal, and neural systems. 

  • Locomotion: Voluntary movements resulting in a change of place or location. 
  • Examples: Walking, running, climbing, flying, and swimming. 
  • Structures Involved: Locomotory structures may overlap with those involved in other movements. For instance, in Paramecium, cilia aid in both food movement and locomotion. 
  • Interconnectedness of Movements and Locomotion:

- Movements and locomotion are closely linked. For example, Hydra uses its tentacles for capturing prey and locomotion. 

- All locomotions are movements, but not all movements are locomotions. 

  • Variety in Locomotion:

- Methods of locomotion vary based on habitat and situational demands. 

- Locomotion is primarily for searching for food, shelter, mates, breeding grounds, suitable climates, or escaping from predators. 

  • Cell membrane outgrowths aiding in movement, essential for various organisms like spermatozoa and Euglena. 
  • Flagellar movement facilitates sperm swimming and maintains water current in sponges' canal system, while cilia assist in locomotion for protozoans like Euglena.