Blood Clotting

Blood Clotting 

 

  • Blood clotting, also known as coagulation, is a vital process that occurs in response to injury or trauma to prevent excessive loss of blood from the body. 
  • When a person sustains a cut or injury, blood begins to clot, forming a dark reddish-brown scum known as a clot or coagulum at the site of the wound. 
  • The clot mainly consists of a network of threads called fibrins, in which dead and damaged formed elements of blood are trapped. 
  • Fibrins are formed by the conversion of inactive fibrinogens in the plasma by the enzyme thrombin. 
  • Thrombin is formed from another inactive substance present in the plasma called prothrombin. 
  • An enzyme complex called thrombokinase is required for the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin. 
  • Thrombokinase is formed by a series of linked enzymatic reactions involving inactive factors present in the plasma. 
  • Platelets in the blood release certain factors when stimulated by injury or trauma, activating the mechanism of coagulation. 
  • Factors released by tissues at the site of injury can also initiate coagulation. 
  • Calcium ions play a crucial role in the clotting process, acting as cofactors for various enzymatic reactions involved in coagulation. 
  • The process of blood clotting involves a cascade of enzymatic reactions, where each reaction triggers the next in a sequential manner. 
  • This cascade process ensures rapid and efficient formation of blood clots in response to injury.