Evolution of Man


  • The history of human evolution is a captivating journey that spans millions of years.
  •  It involves several distinct hominid species that gradually led to the emergence of Homo sapiens, modern humans.

 1. Early Hominids:

  •  Around 15 million years ago, the ancestors of modern humans shared a common ancestor with primates called Dryopithecus and Ramapithecus.
  • These early primates were hairy and walked in a manner resembling gorillas and chimpanzees.
  • Ramapithecus exhibited more human-like characteristics, while Dryopithecus had a closer resemblance to apes.

 2. Hominids in Eastern Africa (3-4 mya):

  • Fossils discovered in Ethiopia and Tanzania have provided evidence of hominid features. These findings suggest that around 3-4 million years ago, man-like primates walked in eastern Africa.
  • These early hominids, likely not taller than 4 feet, had the significant ability to walk upright.

 3. Homo habilis (2 mya):

  • Homo habilis is considered one of the earliest human-like beings. They had a brain capacity ranging from 650-800cc.
  • While they may not have been regular meat-eaters, there is evidence suggesting the use of stone weapons for hunting.
  • Homo habilis represents an important step in human evolution.

 4. Homo erectus (1.5 mya):

  • Homo erectus is another significant milestone in human evolution, with a brain size of around 900cc.
  • They are believed to have consumed meat and displayed more advanced tool use.
  •  Fossils discovered in Java in 1891 provided key insights into Homo erectus.

5. Neanderthal Man (1,00,000-40,000 years ago):

  • Neanderthals, with a brain size of about 1400cc, lived in regions near the Middle East and Central Asia.
  • They demonstrated relatively advanced behaviors such as using hides for clothing and burying their dead.

6. Emergence of Homo sapiens:

  • Homo sapiens, our direct ancestors, arose in Africa. They gradually migrated across different continents, leading to the development of distinct races.
  • During the Ice Age, which spanned from 75,000 to 10,000 years ago, modern Homo sapiens emerged.
  • Notably, prehistoric cave art, a testament to their cognitive capabilities, developed around 18,000 years ago.

7. Agricultural Revolution and Human Settlements:

  • Approximately 10,000 years ago, the advent of agriculture marked a significant turning point.
  •  Human settlements began to take shape, leading to the growth of civilizations.

8. Human History:

  • The subsequent phases of human history involve the growth and decline of civilizations, including cultural, technological, and social developments.