Chromosomes

Prokaryotic Chromosomes:

Characteristics:

Prokaryotic organisms, like bacteria, have a simpler genetic structure. They possess a single, circular chromosome located in the nucleoid region, which lacks a true nucleus. 

Composition:

Prokaryotic chromosomes consist of double-stranded DNA and associated proteins. They do not have histones, unlike eukaryotic chromosomes.

 Replication:

Replication of prokaryotic chromosomes occurs through a process called binary fission, which is a form of asexual reproduction. During this process, the circular chromosome is duplicated, and the two copies segregate into daughter cells.

 Inheritance:

Prokaryotic chromosomes are inherited by daughter cells during cell division, ensuring genetic continuity in the population.

 Eukaryotic Chromosomes:

Characteristics:

Eukaryotic organisms, including plants, animals, and fungi, have a more complex genetic organization. They possess multiple linear chromosomes enclosed within a membrane-bound nucleus.

Composition:

Eukaryotic chromosomes consist of DNA molecules that are tightly wound around histone proteins. This histone-DNA complex helps in packing the genetic material efficiently.

 Replication:

Replication of eukaryotic chromosomes occurs during the S-phase of the cell cycle through semi-conservative DNA replication. Each chromosome is replicated to produce two identical sister chromatids held together at the centromere.

 Inheritance:

Eukaryotic chromosomes segregate during cell division, ensuring that each daughter cell receives the correct number and type of chromosomes. This segregation is crucial for maintaining genetic stability and diversity in eukaryotic organisms.