Tissue Culture

TISSUE CULTURE 

  • Tissue culture is a revolutionary technology discovered in the 1950s, involving the regeneration of entire plants from explants (any plant part) in a sterile environment using a specialized nutrient medium. 
  • Totipotency: The ability of any plant cell or explant to regenerate a complete plant. 
  • Requirements: A nutrient medium containing sucrose, inorganic salts, vitamins, amino acids, and growth regulators like auxins and cytokinins. 
  • Applications:

- Micropropagation: Large-scale production of genetically identical plants (somaclones) for efficient and rapid plant propagation. 

- Disease Recovery: Isolation of virus-free meristems (apical and axillary) allows the recovery of healthy plants from diseased ones. 

  • Commercially applied to crops such as tomato, banana, and apple for rapid and disease-free multiplication. 

Micropropagation 

  • Micropropagation is a method derived from tissue culture, focusing on the large-scale production of genetically identical plants from a single source. 
  • Process

- Explants: Any plant part is cultured in a test tube under sterile conditions. 

- Rapid Multiplication: Allows for the production of thousands of genetically identical plants within a short period. 

  • Widely used for crops like tomato, banana, and apple in commercial agriculture. 
  •  It addresses challenges related to plant diseases and enhances crop yields. 
  •  It provides a faster and more efficient way of propagating plants. 
  • It ensures uniformity in the genetic makeup of propagated plants. 

Somatic Hybridisation                    

  • Somatic hybridisation involves fusing protoplasts (isolated single cells with plasma membranes) from two different varieties of plants to produce hybrid protoplasts. 
  • Process:

- Protoplast Isolation: Single cells with plasma membranes are extracted. 

- Fusion: Protoplasts from two different plant varieties are fused, resulting in somatic hybrids. 

  • Creation of hybrids like the "pomato" by fusing protoplasts of tomato and potato, although commercial utilization was limited. 
  • Used for combining desirable characteristics from different plant varieties.