Kingdom Plantae

General Characteristics of Kingdom Plantae

  • Plants include all eukaryotic organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae.
  • Their cells have a eukaryotic structure with prominent chloroplasts and cell walls mainly made of cellulose. This kingdom includes algae, bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms, and angiosperms.
  • They include familiar organisms such as trees, herbs, bushes, grasses, vines, ferns, mosses, and green algae.
  • Green plants, sometimes called Viridiplantae, obtain most of their energy from sunlight via a process called photosynthesis.
  • A few members are partially heterotrophic such as the insectivorous plants or parasites. Bladderwort and Venus fly traps are examples of insectivorous plants and Cuscuta is a parasite.
  • The life cycle of plants has two distinct phases – the diploid sporophytic and the haploid gametophytic – that alternate with each other.
  • The lengths of the haploid and diploid phases, and whether these phases are free–living or dependent on others, vary among different groups in plants. This phenomenon is called ‘alternation of generation’.