Improvement in Food Resources Part-2

Crop Protection Management

A wide variety of weeds, insect pests, and diseases affect field crops. Weeds and pests can ruin crops to the point that most of the yield is lost if they are not managed at the right time.


  • Unwanted plants called weeds include Cyprinus rotundus (motha), Parthenium (gazar ghas), and Xanthium (gokhroo). For food, room, and light, they face off. Nutrients are absorbed by weeds, which slows crop growth. Therefore, clearing weeds from crop fields at the beginning of crop growth is crucial for a decent harvest.
  • Insect pests: Generally insect pests attack the plants in three ways:
    • They cut the root, stem and leaf,
    • they suck the cell sap from various parts of the plant, and
    • They bore into stem and fruits. They thus affect the health of the crop and reduce yields.
  • A variety of techniques can be used to control weeds, insects, and illnesses. The usage of insecticides comes first. Herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides are all included.
  • These chemicals are sprayed on agricultural plants or used to treat soil and seeds. The difficulty arises when these chemicals are used excessively since they can poison numerous plant and animal species and harm the ecosystem.
  • Another is mechanical removal.

Storage of Grains

  • Agricultural products are subject to very high storage losses.
  • Before grains are stored for later use, preventive and control methods are applied.
  • Before storage, the food must be thoroughly cleaned, dried properly—first in the sun, then in the shade—and fumigated with chemicals that might kill pests.

Animal Husbandry

The scientific management of animals is known as animal husbandry. It covers a range of topics, including breeding, nutrition, and disease management. Cattle, poultry, and fish farming are all examples of animal-based farming.

Cattle Farming

Milk production and draught labour for agricultural tasks like tilling, irrigation, and hauling are the two main goals of cattle husbandry.

  • Milk production depends on the duration of the lactation period. The length of the lactation period affects the amount of milk produced. Increasing the lactation duration will hence boost milk production. While native breeds exhibit unusual disease resistance, exotic or foreign breeds are chosen for their protracted lactation durations. The two are cross-bred to get animals with both the desired qualities.
  • The food requirements of dairy animals are of two types: 
  • (a) maintenance requirement, which is the food required to support the animal to live a healthy life, 
  • (b) milk-producing requirement, which is the type of food required during the lactation period.
  • The animal feed includes (a) roughage, which is largely fibre, and (b) concentrates, which are low in fibre and contain relatively high levels of proteins and other nutrients.

Poultry Farming

Poultry farming is a form of animal husbandry which is undertaken to raise domestic fowl for the production of egg and chicken meat Indian poultry varieties includes the Aseel, Busra Chittagong, and Ghagus. American poultry varieties includes Plymouth Rock Wyandotte, Rhode Island Red and New Hampshire

Other examples include:

  • Mediterranean Classes such as leghorns’ white leghorns, Minorca, are more commonly reared.
  • English breeds are Sussex, Cornish, red caps, etc.
  • Layers are the egg-laying birds, and broilers are reared for meat.

Fish Production

  • Fish production includes the finned true fish as well as shellfish such as prawns and mollusks.
  •  There are two ways of obtaining fish. One is a form of fishing known as capture that uses natural resources. The other method is cultural fishery, or fish farming.
  • In both freshwater and marine habitats, fishing can be done by catching and cultivating fish.

The different types of Fisheries are:

  • Marine Fisheries — Marine fishery deals with fishing in the oceans and seas. Marine fishery deals with fishing in the oceans and seas. Apart from fish, it also deals with other seafood, such as prawns, lobsters and crabs.
  • Inland Fisheries — Fishing in rivers, lakes, and tanks is referred to as inland fishery. Popular freshwater fish breeds include rohu, catla, mrigal, grass carp, and others.

Bee Keeping

  • Beekeeping, also referred to as apiculture, is the practise of raising bees for the purpose of producing honey and wax. This is now a significant, lucrative, and agriculturally based company."
  • Apis mellifera, Apis adamsoni, and Apis cerena indica—commonly referred to as the Indian bee—are a few of the exotic types cultivated in India. Another native species is Apis dorsata, sometimes referred to as the rock bee.